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Vegetarian 
cookery 



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VEGETARIAN 
COOKERY 



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LONDON 

C. ARTHUR PEARSON, LTD. 

HENRIETTA STREET 

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can be made much more tempting ^ 
by the addition of a dainty white i 
sauce made from > 



Brown & Poison's 



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Send a id. stamp to Brown & ; 
Poison, Paisley, for their "Vege- 
table Sauces " containing 30 recipes 
for- simply made appetising sauces. 



There* is a^oyal Road to 
Success in Pastry-making 
and Cake-making ; 
It is in uj&fg 



Brown W/ Poison's '■' 

'raising poVder 

I c Paisley Flour' 

(Trade Mark) 



—one part to 6 or 8 parts of ordinary flour, 
and omit other raising agents. " The work 
is easier and the success certain/' 

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Contents 



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PAGE 


PREFACE . . . . 


II 


GENERAL REMARKS ON VEGETARIAN FARE . 


• 13 


GENERAL REMARKS ON VEGETABLES. 


• 23 


SOUPS ..... 


26 


SIMPLE VEGETABLE RECIPES .... 


35 


ENTREES AND SAVOURIES .... 


51 


FARINACEOUS AND CHEESE .... 


70 


EGGS . . . . 


82 


OMELETS ...... 


87 


CURRIES 


91 


MACARONI .... . 


96 


LIAISONS AND SAUCES. . 


99 


SALADS . . . . . . . 


no 


INDEX ...... 


121 



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I 



Preface 



Vegetarianism is, strictly speaking, the use tor food of the 
products of the vegetable kingdom to the total exclusion of 
those of the animal kingdom. True vegetarians exclude the 
use of milk, eggs, and butter, but by far the greater number 
do not earry this principle to such an extent, limiting their 
abnegation to that which has been killed for purpose of food. 
That the products of the vegetable world contain all the pro- 
perties necessary to build up the constituent parts of the 
human body is an undoubted fact; and is proved by the 
sturdiness of the Scotch labourers, who live almost exclu- 
sively on oatmeal, and of the Chinese coolies and the Japanese, 
whose staple food is rice. It is true that in times past, owing 
to lack of variety, people inhabiting the more northerly lati- 
tudes were to a great extent, for six months in the year, 
driven back on flesh; but this no longer holds good, for 
every quarter of the globe is laid under contribution, and 
different fruits and vegetables are in season all the year round. 

A strong argument in favour of Vegetarianism is its economy. 
At first sight this may not be apparent ; in fact, the opposite 
may seem to be the case. The economical housekeeper will 
exclaim at the quantity of butter to be used ; but against this 
must be placed the price of meat, and it will be seen that a 
(considerable saving has been effected. On the Continent oil 
is used for almost all kinds of frying. The advantage of this 
is that it may be used over and over again, so here at once a 
saving is effected over the dabs of lard, dripping, or butter 
used in the average household, which are always thrown away 
after use; 

Again* the difficulty of stock for soup may present itself, 
Thfe, however, is easily obviated, for it may be made from 
vegetables just in the same way as it is made from meat. 

Finally, there is the difficulty of introducing the system 
into a household. Meat-eaters declare that a vegetarian 
meal is far from satisfying. For this reason the system 
should be introduced gradually, and the reduction of meat 
conducted by slow degrees. 

ii 

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Delicious 




coco 



NOURISHES. « 



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STRENGTHENS 



Trade 



The "LANCET" says: 

" Plasmon Cocoa contains all the 
stituents able to support life, it is mi 
stimulating whilst highly nourishing.*' 
Cup of Plasmon Cocoa contains 
nourishment t)mn 10 Cups of any ordii 
cocoa, and is absolutely free fi 
chemicals and added starchy matter. 

AIDS DIGESTION, 
PROMOTES 

REFRESHING 
SLEE1 

IN TIMS: 9d.; 1/4; 2/6. 



PLASHON, Ltd. (Contractors to H.M. Government), Farringdon Street, Lon 







"°°* ! 



T V 



GENERAL REMARKS ON VEGE- 
TARIAN FARE 

i. Vegetarian Soups.—The first consideration, if one 
takes the dinner menu from the beginning, is naturally the 
soup. Now, though the British cook considers a quantity of 
meat and bones essential to soup-making, good or bad, the 
French cuisiniere, like the vegetarian, is capable of turning 
out an excellent well-flavoured and nourishing potage without 
their aid at all. The vegetable purees are, of course, well 
known, and stock need not enter into their composition. The 
vegetable, spinach, peas, potato, celery, &c, is cooked with 
the smallest possible quantity of water till soft enough to rub 
through a sieve. In a saucepan melt a pat of butter, then stir 
to it the vegetable pulp. Dilute with a little milk and water, 
season to taste, and let it get boiling hot. Now draw the pan 
on one side, beat up the yolk of an egg with a tablespoonful 
of cream, and stir in. Tomato soup made from canned 
tomatoes is excellent. The tomatoes, of course, need no 
cooking ; the addition of a pinch of sugar and a teaspoonful 
of vinegar add much to the flavour. Milk should not be used 
with the water, as it is apt to curdle. Dried green peas, well 
soaked, make nearly as good a puree as fresh ones ; a sprig of 
mint should be boiled with them, and a couple of lumps of 
sugar. To the pulp, when passed through the sieve, may be 
added a small quantity of spinach puree. Jerusalem arti- 
chokes, green haricots, also red ones, are all good for purees, 
and an excellent soup is made by a judicious blending of arti- 
choke, potato, turnip, and a bit of onion, whilst a still better 
one is a mixture of any and every vegetable to hand. A 
vegetable consomme, for those who like clear soup, is also 
possible. It is made of a handful of peas, with a carrot, 

*3 



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Vegetarian Cookery 

onion, celery, a bouquet of herbs, boiled gently together till 
tender, but not pulpy ; then strained and cleared, seasoned 
and garnished with Italian paste, pieces of macaroni, custard 
dice, or any garnish liked. This stock, made with rather less 
water, serves for the making of sauces. If for brown sauces, 
fry the vegetables with the addition of a tomato or tomato 
sauce in some butter. When brown, add a little boiling water, 
and boil for a few minutes. 

2. Thicfc Soups and Purees.— These are a very great 
aid to economy, as many of them can be made with water, or 
milk and water. To make a Successful puree it is necessary 
to learn how to use a sieve. This is the method : Turn the 
sieve upside down over a basin, or, better still, fit it (still 
upside down) into a clean saucepan ; pour a little of the soup 
through the sieve, take a wooden spoon and press the puree 
through the sieve, using the back of the spoon, and drawing 
it towards you, pressing as heavily as possible. Reverse the 
sieve, and with the point of the spoon scrape off the pulp 
which sticks to the under side. Replace the sieve in its first 
position, and continue the rubbing process until all the puree 
is through ; remove the sieve and rinse it well with hot water, 
afterwards cleaning it. During the sieving process hold the 
sieve firmly in the left hand, and tilt it downwards towards 
the right. These rules hold good whether the article to be 
sieved is soup, a vegetable, or fruit, and a very little practice 
makes perfect. For every-day use a wire sieve may be used 
in place of a hair one, but the puree will not in this case be of 
so creamy a character. It will be well to practise first with a 
wire sieve, and then to go on to the use of a hair sieve. If 
time is of consequence, and the best result is desired, put the 
soup first through a wire sieve, and afterwards through the 
hair one. 

3. Entries.— For entrees the vegetarian has recourse to 
macaroni and the forms of it known as raviolis and nouille 
paste, to rice cooked in many ways, and also to eggs. Then, 
again, fritters and beignets of vegetables also serve for the 
same course. Macaroni, boiled, drained, and served in a 
thick tomato sauce, or with a well-made white sauce, forms a 
really nice entree ; of course, if cheese be added, it serves for 
a savoury. A macaroni mould can be made by adding a little 
dissolved isinglass or gelatine to the white sauce, stirring to it 

14 

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J 

J 



General Remarks on Vegetarian Fare 

the boiled macaroni cut up into pieces, and the whole turned 
into a mould. Thpugh cold, it will be excellent served with a 
hot tomato sauce. Macaroni boiled and cut in small pieces, 
mixed with white sauce into which the yolk of egg has been 
incorporated, seasoned and rolled into balls,, then covered 
with egg and breadcrumb* and nicely fried, is by no means, 
an entree to be despised even by flesh-eaters. 

Nouille paste is a home-made macaroni. It is made by 
working a couple of eggs into a pound of flpur, with a pinch 
of salt, then rolling it out and cutting it into narrow or broad 
strips (as liked) and treating it in the same way as macaroni. 

Fritters of vegetables and beignets are easy to make, and 
very good eating. For the former lentils, beans, Jerusalem 
artichokes, tomatoes or carrots, are alike good. When the 
vegetable is boiled and rubbed through the sieve, mix with it 
a few breadcrumbs, the yolk of an egg, pepper, salt, minced 
parsley, or herbs if their flavour be liked ; drop the mixture 
into boiling butter or oil from a teaspoon and fry brown on 
both sides ; drain and serve piled on a serviette decorate4 
with sprigs of parsley or rings of fried onion. 

Beignets can be made of artichokes lightly boiled, and when 
cold, cut in slices ; of cauliflower, also boiled and broken into 
sprigs ; and of salsify, cut in thick, small pieces. All of these 
are, pf course, dipped in nice batter and fried. 

Other dishes which serve as entrees are vegetable souffles, 
light, tasty, and nourishing. Spinach, turnip tops or kale, 
boiled, drained, rubbed through a sieve, mixed with the 
beaten yolks of two or three eggs, seasoned with salt, pepper, 
and with a little cream ; then the whites of the eggs whisked 
to a stiff froth lightly added and the whole baked in a souffle 
tin or case. Souffle of tomato is also good. 

4. Vegetable Pies. — For more solid dishes vegetarian 
pies must be requisitioned. These can be made with a nice 
puff-paste, or if preferred, with a potato crust. In the making 
of the former only butter must be used. A potato and mush- 
room pie is by no means bad fare. First line a dish with thin 
paste, then fill it up with alternate layers of sliced potatoes 
and mushrooms, add a little brown sauce or vegetable stock, 
cover and bake. Potatoes and tomatoes serve equally well. 
A pie of savoury balls, sliced potatoes, hard-boiled eggs quar- 
tered, and tomato sauce, will be found quite worthy of atten- 

15 



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Vegetarian Cookery 

tion. The balls are made of breadcrumbs, minced parsley, 
herbs, and lemon rind, mixed with a little butter and bound 
with the yolk of an egg. Canned tomatoes make a really 
excellent pie or pudding. They must be laid in rows in a 
deep dish, each row covered with breadcrumbs, and a few 
small bits of butter, seasoned with salt and pepper, and baked. 
A spoonful of cream may be used in lieu of butter. 

5. Eggs and Salads. — Of the very many different and 
delicious ways of dressing eggs it is unnecessary to speak, but 
they figure to advantage in the vegetarian's menu. Salads of 
various kinds, and all vegetables are, of course, largely par- 
taken of by the non-flesheaters, but it is not necessary that 
these latter be plainly boiled or served with the usual thick 
kind of sauce. The vegetarian who, though simple in tastes, 
still likes his food carefully prepared, will have his cabbage 
drained, chopped up finely, then returned to the pan, with a 
little butter or a spoonful of cream, some salt, pepper, and a 
squeeze of lemon, and stirred over the fire till hot, piled on 
a hot dish, and decorated with croutons ; or, when partly 
boiled, some of the leaves can be removed, and a nice force- 
meat introduced in their place. The cabbage is then tied 
round and its cooking finished. 

6. Dried Vegetables. — Dried vegetables are well worthy 
of greater attention than they generally have bestowed on 
them ; all varieties of beans, peas, and lentils contain so much 
nourishment that they are used by many with great advantage 
to health. 

Haricots, both the giant kind and the ordinary small 
variety, butter beans, lima beans, green haricots, green peas, 
lentils, and split peas, require soaking for at least twelve hours 
in cold wafer, to which a tiny piece of soda has been added. 
They should be carefully picked over beforehand, so as to 
make sure there are no miscellaneous fragments with them, 
well washed in a colander, then put to soak in a basin. 

For ordinary use, let them simmer gently for five or six 
hours in an enamelled pan, cover with water, add a little salt, 
small onion, and a good piece of butter. When cooked, drain 
carefully, dish, and sprinkle with finely-chopped parsley, or, 
strain the liquor, return to the pan, thicken with flour and 
butter, and pour over the vegetables. Cold haricot, lima, and 
butter beans form the base of a most excellent salad ; with 

16 

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General Remarks on Vegetarian Fare 

them may be mixed spring onion, raw or boiled, cold potatoes, 
tomatoes (fresh or tinned), cucumber and lettuce. The whole 
is mixed with a dressing composed of the yolk of one hard- 
boiled egg rubbed smooth, with a little celery salt and made 
mustard, a small quantity of vinegar, and a liberal supply of 
good fresh oil. 

Green peas require to be well soaked, then simmered gently 
for about four hours, with a sprig of mint, parsley, and small 
onion tied up together, and a small pat of butter ; when 
tender, drain well, pick out the bouquet garni and onion, put 
a good piece of butter into the saucepan, return the peas, and 
toss in the butter until thoroughly hot ; salt to taste should be 
added when they are nearly cooked in the first instance. 

Dried peas soaked and boiled as before directed can be 
served as a vegetable, as a change from split peas. 

Pea flour makes lighter pease pudding than split peas. It 
should be seasoned with salt and a very little pepper, and be 
mixed to the consistency of a very stiff batter, with a well- 
whisked egg and a small quantity of water ; the addition of a 
good piece of fresh butter enriches it greatly. Turn into a 
well-buttered mould, secure the top with a cloth, and steam 
for two hours. 

Dried mushrooms need to be simmered until thoroughly 
tender. Dried julienne, obtainable in packets, is most useful 
for serving in soups ; it can also be utilised as a garnish for 
vegetable or egg cutlets, &c. To use, soak in cold water, 
drain and rinse, melt a good piece of butter in a pan, add the 
julienne, set the pan by the side of a moderate fire to slowly 
cook for fifteen minutes, then add sufficient water to cover 
the vegetables. Simmer until perfectly tender, drain care- 
fully, and use as directed for any made-dish of any kind, salad 
or savoury. 

7. Dried Fruit.— The great improvement of late years in 
the preparation of dried fruits, and the fact that they are so 
reasonable, should not fail to recommend them to the house- 
wife who seeks variety of food for her family. 

Dried apples, if carefully prepared, are most useful for 
sauce, puddings, pies, &c, at a season when the fresh fruit is 
dear and unreliable. Apple rings are far superior to apnje 
Chips. Carefully look them over and remove all pips, &c, 
place in a basin, cover with water, and squeeze over them 
T 17 b 



Vegetarian Cookery 

the juice of one lemon ; leave them to soak for twelve 
hours* 

Strain off the liquor and put it into an enamelled pan with 
sufficient loaf sugar to sweeten to taste/add lemon peel, cinna* 
mon or cloves, according to fancy and the purpose for which 
you intend utilising 'the apples. When the liquor is some* 
what thick and syrupy, put in the apples and simmer gently 
until thoroughly tender. When cool, use for pies, &c. For 
sauce omit sugar, or add but little, pass through a sieve, and 
add a good piece of butter $ reheat before serving. Apricots 
and pears are excellent stewed with but little sugar, plenty of 
lemon peel and juice. They must be allowed to cook very 
slowly, and the lemon peel must be cut very thin. Plums 
should be stewed in a syrup made with sugar, lemon-juice, 
a little cinnamon, and a glass of claret, sufficient water being 
added to make the right quantity. Figs cut in halves stew 
excellently in a jar in the oven. They need but little sugar, 
and are much improved by the addition of some lemon- juice 
and a teaspoonful of good brandy. Sultanas or raisins are 
very good gently stewed in a syrup made with water, lemon- 
juice, sugar, and Canary sack. Boil till the syrup thickens, 
then add the fruit (quite free from all stalks), and simmer 
gently until quite tender. Any of the various fruits described 
serve excellently for dinner, if accompanied by rice pudding 
or blanc-mange for every-day use, and sponge fingers and 
whipped cream for more festive occasions. 

8. Herbs. — During the summer a supply of savoury herbs 
should be gathered and dried for winter use, and as they are 
in fullest flavour just before they begin to flower, notice? 
should be taken of the herb-bed that they may be culled at the 
right time. The herbs should be cut off close to the roots, 
cleansed from all grit, dried in a cloth, then laid on dishes in, 
the oven, placed on newspapers in a sunny window, or dried; 
in a Dutch oven. They must not be scorched, but the quickei} 
they are dried the better. The leaves should then be picket^ 
off the stalks, pounded in a mortar, passed through a sieve} 
and the powder secured in tightly-stoppered bottles. Table} 
for remembering when to gather herbs for drying : 

Savoufy (tointer). —End of July till September. 

Savowy (simmer).— find of July and August. 

S«#.«-Augufct and September. 

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General Remarks on Vegetarian Fare 

Lemon thyme. — End of July and August. 

Orange thyme. — June and July* 

Common thyme. — August. 

Knotted marjoram. — July and August. 

Lamb mint. — End of June and July. 

Parsley. — May to end of July. 

Chervil. — May to August. 

Basil. — Middle of August. 

Burnet.-— June, July, August. 

Tarragon.^june to August. 

A useful powder made of mixed herbs is prepared thus : 
After having dried and separated the leaves from the stalks, 
take an equal weight of powdered lemon thyme, marjoram, 
winter savoury, basil, and parsley, and half the weight of 
either in lemon rind minced finely and dried ; pound all theso 
together, sift the powdered mixture through a gravy strainer, 
and store in a stoppered bottle. A small quantity will be 
found sufficient for flavouring any savoury dish in which 
herbs are required. 

9. Nuts. — The nuts generally used in confectionery and 
general cookery are almonds (both sweet and bitter), walnuts, 
filberts, peanuts, and chestnuts. The hard shells must be 
removed without breaking the nuts, for this would damage 
their appearance. The easiest way to remove the shell is to 
crack it gently in several places with nut-crackers, then with 
a lobster-pick pull off the shell in pieces. In walnuts the 
hard pith which partly divides the nut must be removed. 
Walnuts are used either fresh or dried, generally the latter, 
and the skin is not removed. They may also be browned in 
the oven with a little butter like almonds, and used whole, 
halved, or chopped. Those who have walnut trees should 
thus prepare the fruit in the early part of the winter, and 
secure a cheap substitute for almonds, which in many cases 
Will be found equally good. 

10. Sauter or Saut6eing. — Sauteeing may be defined 
as dry-frying. Frying proper is effected in a large quantity 
of oil or butter ; this is called wet-frying, whilst dry-frying 
is to attempt frying with an alleviated, or a less severe 
heat than the actual frying in deep fat This is done by 
Using only just enough oil or butter to enable one to tos9 
tilings in the pan over a fire. The pan used for this purpose 

I 19 



Vegetarian Cookery 

is either a saute-pan, or an ordinary frying or omelet pan. 
The object of sauteeing is partly to stir the contents of the 
pan and to prevent it from burning. This must, however, 
not be performed with a fork or spoon, but by moving the 
pan frequently backward and forward over a quick fire. 
This is tossing. A quick and clear fire is needed, because 
the article to be tossed must be cooked rapidly and equally 
throughout. 

ii. Frying. — The process of frying is in the truest culinary 
sense " boiling in fat or oil." The conditions of boiling in oil 
are altogether different, and the effects to a certain extent 
contrary to the mode of boiling in other liquids. For frying, 
the fat must be 360 deg. In consequence of this, if articles 
of food be plunged into boiling fat or oil, they produce the 
very opposite results from those gained by boiling. By the 
latter method, meat, vegetables, and fish become soft and in 
some cases dissolved, or are reduced to the condition of 
purees (pulp), while in frying they become firm, and ultimately 
brown on the outside, and if left too long in boiling fat they 
become black. 

Fat is incapable of dissolving the internal juices of fried 
food. When anything becomes dry through long frying the 
cause is that the continued heat of the fat drives out all the 
moisture in the shape of vapour. 

There are two modes of frying : 

1. Dry-frying, which is frying in as little oil as possible, 
adapted for small pieces of vegetables, &c. 

2. Wet-frying, which is done in a deep pan containing at 
least as much oil as will well cover whatever is being fried. 
Whatever is fried in this way must be coated either with, 
flour, batter, eggs, or crumbs ; this is done to prevent the heat 
of the oil from entering into the substance fried. 

12. Frying in Oil. — Oil is greatly used for frying on the 
Continent, but more especially in France and Italy, and of 
late years it has come into favour in a number of places in thirf 
country. Oil requires careful handling, and needs to hi 
warmed up over a gentle fire to prevent it from rising oE 
boiling over (380-400 deg.). £ 

Butter is sometimes used for deep frying, but it is hardlf 
suitable, because it boils too quickly, and is apt to burp bef or3 
tfce article to be fried is done. 

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General Remarks on Vegetarian Fare 

The heat employed in the case of frying has to perform the 
same object as it does in roasting and boiling. Its effect 
must be to form a thin crust on the outside of whatever is 
fried. 

For this reason the oil must be hot and smoking before 
anything can be successfully fried. The best plan to test the 
proper heat of oil is to watch it until it is perfectly still, when 
a faint blue smoke will be seen to rise ; the oil is then ready 
for frying. A small piece of bread thrown into the oil is also 
a good test. If it turns brown immediately the heat is 
correct; if not, the oil is still too cool for frying. 

For frying in deep oil, have a frying basket to fit a strong 
iron stewpan. 

Put all fried things on to several folds of kitchen paper to 
drain before serving. 

The principal causes of failures in frying are : — 

Putting in food to fry before the oil is thoroughly heated. 

Insufficient quantity of oil in the pan. 

Too much moisture adhering to the surface of articles to be 
fried. 

13. Stock. — It is of course well known that all soups have 
stock as their basis. This, in the present case, is made from 
vegetables cut small and simmered for several hours, using 
larger proportions of that vegetable which is to give the 
dominant flavour, whether it be onion, carrot, turnip, or 
celery ; milk is also used instead of vegetable stock. 

14. Roux. — The most popular and most generally adopted 
thickening is effected by means of roux. It is therefore 
necessary to first give a few details to define the word "roux" 
in regard to its culinary meaning. Literally the word means 
" russet," but in the culinary sense it is a mixture of flour and 
butter cooked or blended to certain degrees, to white, brown, 
or fawn colours. The quantities of flour and butter employed 
are used in equal proportions. If made beforehand in large 
or small quantities it should be kept in covered jars, when it 
will keep good for months. A tablespoonful is usually found 
sufficient to thicken a pint of liquid. Stock roux must 
always be kept in jars, well covered, in a cool place, ready at 
hand. 

i If the roux be used in a cold state (stock roux) it may be 
fluxed with cold or hot stock, but as soon as mixed it must 

7 

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Vegetarian Cookery 

be stirred constantly over the fire till boiling, or if mixed hot 
the liquid should be poured by degrees into the roux away 
from the fire and then stirred over the fire till it boils. 

Special precaution must always be exercised, in making 
a sauce with a roux thickening, that the temperature be 
lowered, or in other words, that the roux be allowed to cool a 
little before the liquid stock be added. This will prevent the 
sauce from getting lumpy, and will do much towards making 
a sauce perfectly smooth. All roux must be stirred com 
stantly during the process of blending (frying) or roasting. 

15. White Roux.— This is a mixture of flour and butter 
cooked in a stewpan on a moderate fire without allowing it to 
attain any colour, whereby it will retain its original white 
colour. 

16. Blonde or Fawn Roux. — This is made by melting 
a certain quantity of butter, by stirring in the same or a less 
quantity of sifted flour, and by cooking it over a slow fire or 
in the oven until it has acquired a light blonde or fawn 
colour. 

17. Brown Roux.— This is the so-called stock roux, which 
can be prepared in large quantities to be used cold as 
required. It is made exactly in the same manner as the 
foregoing, with the exception that it is fried longer, until 
it becomes a darker colour, a chestnut brown or russet brown. 
It is best to finish the roux in a slack oven, for the slower the 
process the better the bleuding and the finer the aroma of the 
sauce will be. 

18. Roux Liaison or Thickening.— This liaison is. 
made by pouring prepared strained stock slowly into the 
stewpan containing the roux, which, as before explained, 
must be allowed to cool a little. The contents are then 
stirred over a slow fire until they boil and allowed to 
simmer until they attain the desired consistency. 



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GENERAL REMARKS ON 
VEGETABLES 

19. General Remarks. — Those who are fortunate in 
having a well-stocked kitchen garden ought never to be at 
a loss for both good substantial food and dainty dishes. To 
those who have to buy at the market or shops careful choice 
is recommended. Green vegetables quickly lose their delicate 
flavour, the juices become dry, the leaves wither, and decom- 
position sets in ; none can be called fresh after one day in 
summer or two days in winter ; if necessary to keep them so 
long, plunge the stalks into cold water, in which throw a 
piece of charcoal, and keep them in a cool place. To ascer- 
tain the freshness and age, break off a piece with one hand ; 
if it snaps crisply and is not stringy, these qualities are 
assured. 

20. How to Prepare Kerbs.-^Parsky, mint, and herbs 
should be washed in cold water, wrung dry in a cloth, and 
chopped with a proper knife. If carefully dried thus they 
will be crisp, and instead of clinging in a wet mass to the 
knife and board, will be quickly chopped to powder ; the 
board also will not be stained green nor require special 
attention to cleanse. 

21., Cook in an Appetising Way.— The cooking of 
vegetables is in many houses badly done. An unappetising, 
hot, wet mass, carelessly piled on a cold dish, is only too 
frequently sent to table with an otherwise well-cooked 
dinner. How much more wholesome and enjoyable would 
a less costly dinner be if the vegetables, so necessary for 
food, were carefully prepared, cooked, and served; there-? 
fore let the following suggestions be always followed. Boil 
£dl vegetables carefully so that they are cooked, but not 

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overcooked, drain them in a hot colander, and keep them 
thoroughly hot till served ; let the dish be well warmed, also 
its cover, or the steam will condense on it and fall on the 
vegetables, making them chilled and sodden. 

22. Foreign Ways More Varied.— Dried peas, lentils, 
and haricot beans are of high value as food. Many excellent 
soups and savoury dishes can be made having these as a 
foundation, which would make a pleasant variety in our 
cookery at small cost, and it would be well for Engjish 
people to make a greater study of the much neglected art 
of cooking vegetables of all kinds, and of employing milk, 
cheese, and eggs as suitable additions to them. 

Foreign intercourse and travel have introduced to our 
notice quite a different style of cookery, and one rarely 
takes up a cookery book without being struck with the 
vegetable course being so well to the fore, but more must 
still be done before we can persuade those with very 
slender incomes to practise economy by using pulse more 
frequently. 

The French, Swiss, German, and Italian nations have long 
set a fine example to us in this matter, for they cultivate 
vegetables most assiduously, and they certainly have many 
more varied ways of preparing and cooking them than are, 
generally speaking, known in England. 

These nations, it must be admitted, esteem vegetables as a 
food much more than we do, and our readers will do well to 
study the subject, not only of plain boiled vegetables, but of 
vegetable entrees, savouries, and curries, and of the best 
methods for preparing vegetables for the table. 

23. Some Vegetarian Menus.— The vegetarian is gene- 
rally a great believer in dried fruits, dates, raisins, figs, &c, 
and it has been proved that they contain a large amount of 
nourishment ; he has them as a finish to every meal. Nuts 
again figure largely in the dessert, and strange to say, 
though the flesh-eater generally finds them exceedingly 
indigestible, the vegetarian has no such ground of complaint. 
For vegetarians in health the following menus may be useful. 

Menu 1. — Lentil soup, macaroni with tomato sauce, potato 
and mushroom pie, salad of lettuce and endive, cabinet 
pudding, dessert and nuts. i 

Menu 2. — Consomme with custard dice, spinach souffleA 

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General Remarks on Vegetables 

tomato and breadcrumb pudding, cabbage with cream, apple 
tart, nuts. 

Menu 3. — Celery soups, eggs in Bechamel sauce, carrot 
fritters and baked rice, salad of beetroot, chocolate pudding, 
fruit and nuts. 

24. How to Avoid Vegetable Odours.— Some cooks 
are not always careful to send up the chimney the disagree- 
able odours which are caused by boiling vegetables, frying, 
&c, but allow them to be carried over the house wherever a 
draught will take them. Proper ventilation over the stove- 
plate is the best preventive for this. In all ranges there is an 
opening over the hot-plate through which the chimney-sweep 
puts his brush when he cleans the chimney. If there is no 
other means of letting the unpleasant smells go into the flues, 
open this a little way and the heat of the chimney will attract 
the draughts from windows and doors and send the air into its 
ascending column of smoke. 

A piece of crust tied in muslin is helpful in preventing the 
smell of broccoli if it is boiled with it. Plenty of water should 
be used and the pot kept uncovered. Salt should be sprinkled 
over the range previous to frying, so that it may absorb any 
spluttering^ ; a few drops of vinegar on a shovel of red-hot 
cinders, or cedar-wood dust sprinkled on the stove-plate, are 
good deodorisers for smells when such accidents occur as a 
pot boiling over ; but whatever is used, let me recommend 
ventilation into the chimney as the best plan. Water in 
which green vegetables have been boiled should never be 
allowed to remain in the pan a moment after they have been 
taken out ; it should be carried out of doors and poured on 
the earth and not down the drains. Attention to these 
matters adds much to the comfort of home, but it is fre- 
quently in such details as this that there is neglect on the 
part of those who have the care of the cookery and stove 
management. 



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SOUPS 

25. Artichoke Ptsr6e or Palestine Soup. — 1} lb. Jeru- 
salem artichokes, 1 onion, 1 oz. butter, 1 qt. milk and water, 
x gill cream or milk, 1 bayleaf, salt, white pepper. Wash the 
artichokes, peel and slice them, do not let them stand after 
peeling, or they will discolour ; dissolve the butter in a stew- 
pan, add the sliced artichokes and a chopped onion, cover the 
pan and let the vegetables sweat, but do not fry them ; add a 
teaspoonf ul of salt, a pint of boiling water, cook them quickly 
till tender, rub them through a hair sieve, adding one pint 
more of hot water whilst doing so, return all to the saucepan, 
add the cream or milk, season to taste, stir till boiling, then 
serve. Hand fried croutons with the soup. 

26. Barley and Pea Soup. — } lb. pearl barley, 1 pt. 
dried green peas, 1 or 2 large onions, 1 02. butter, season- 
ing. Well wash the pearl barley and peas, throw away all 
discoloured parts ; steep them in cold water for at least 
twelve hours ; put them into a saucepan with six pints of 
water, boil up, remove the scum, add the onions and pepper, 
and let boil gently for four or five hours until the peas and 
barley are quite soft, press the soup through a sieve, return it 
to the pan, add salt to taste, and stir in the butter. 

27. Cabbage Soup.— Slice a cabbage and boil it with 
leeks and turnips, and flavour with pepper and salt. 

28. Carrot Soup. — Carrots, celery, onion. Take the red 
outside part of six carrots and boil it with a head of celery 
and an onion until half done. Drain them, and let them 
simmer very gently with butter in a saucepan. Add a quart 
of water and boil until tender, then rub through a sieve and 
add butter, pepper, and salt. The soup should be of the con< 
sistency of cream. The rich appearance makes it a pleasing % 
addition to the menu. 

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29. Cauliflower Soup. — 1 large cauliflower, 1 onion, 
head of celery, ij pts. milk. Gut away the green parts of 
the cauliflower and celery, and boil until tender j drain and 
rub all through a sieve, and add boiling milk to make it pf the 
consistency of cream. Serve with fried bread. 

30. Celery Soup. — 4 medium sized heads of celery; 
%i pts. milk. Cut the celery into small pieces and stew them 
with butter ; then add water and boil to a pulp. Rub through 
a sieve and add boiling milk ; season with pepper and salt, 
and serve with fried bread. 

31. Chestnut Soup (Brown).— 2 lb. chestnuts, vegetable 
stock, cornfloor, fried bread, caramel colouring. Slit the 
skins of two pounds of chestnuts, roast them for twenty 
minutes, then skin and boil them in well-flavoured vegetable 
stock, till tender ; pound them in a mortar or with a wooden 
spoon and press them through a fine sieve, return the puree to 
a saucepan, add sufficient stock to make to the amount required 
to be served, thicken with cornflour, season to taste, colour 
with caramel, and send to table with dice of fried bread served 
on a warm plate covered with a warm serviette. 

32. Chestnut Soup (White). — 2 lb. chestnuts, 1 onion, 
1 stick celery, milk, white peppercorns, salt, a tablespoonf ul of 
flour. Prepare the chestnuts by slitting the shells, scalding 
them in boiling water until the skins can be removed, then 
boiling them in milk and water with some celery, an onion, 
white peppercorns and salt until tender ; pound and press all 
through a fine sieve, return them to the saucepan, add sufficient 
hot milk to make the soup to a right consistency when 
thickened with flour, season to taste and serve. This puree 
will be much richer if a little cream beaten up with the yolk 
of an egg is added to it after it is poured quite boiling into the 
soup-tureen. 

33. Green Bean Soup. — 1 qt. broad beans ; onion, carrot, 
celery. Boil the beans with the other vegetables, and remove 
the skins ; rub them through a sieve and add butter, pepper 
and salt and a little sugar, and serve with a consistency of 
thick cream. 

34. Green Pea Soup. — Save the water in which some 
peas have been boiled j take their pods — about a peck will be 
Sufficient-^-and wash them thoroughly in half a dozen waters. 
Drain upon a hair sieve and put them into the water in which 

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Vegetarian Cookery 

the peas were boiled. Add a large onion, a blade of mint, a 
couple of lumps of sugar, and salt to taste. Simmer very 
slowly until the pods are thoroughly soft; then press them 
through a sieve, and return to the liquor they were cooked in. 
Take out the onion and mint, and add bit by bit an ounce and 
a half of butter. Stir gently over a slow fire for ten minutes, 
season with pepper, and serve with fried croutons, handed 
separately. 

35. Haricot Soup.— 1 pt. haricot beans, 2 onions, 1 carrot, 
head celery, 2 oz. butter, parsley, 2 yolks eggs, i£ gills cream, 
seasoning. Soak one pint of good haricot beans in water, to 
which a tiny piece of soda has been added, for twelve hours. 
Wash well, cut up two medium-sized onions, the white part 
of a head of celery, one small carrot. Put the vegetables in 
three pints of boiling water, to which has been added two 
ounces of fresh butter, a bunch of parsley, a teaspoonful of 
salt, cook gently until the haricots are quite tender, remove 
the parsley and pass all the other ingredients through a sieve, 
season with pepper, a tiny dust of mace and nutmeg, reheat, 
and when hot but not boiling, pour on to the yolks of two 
eggs which have been well mixed with one gill and a half of 
cream. Serve with croutons. Whisk well for one minute 
before sending to table. 

36. Haricot Beans (Clermont Soup). — | lb. white 
haricot beans, 1 onion, 1 carrot, herbs, bayleaf, peppercorns, 
1 oz. butter, 1 gill milk (or cream), 3 pts. water. Soak the 
white haricot beans overnight, and next day boil them with 
an onion, a carrot, a small bunch of parsley, thyme, and a 
bayleaf, twenty peppercorns, and a teaspoonful of salt. They 
should be simmered for about three hours till thoroughly 
tender, when the carrot and herbs should be removed and 
the remainder rubbed through a hair sieve. Then return the 
puree to the saucepan, let it boil, add a small pat of butter and 
a little hot cream, and serve at once with fried croutons. 

37. Haricot Soup (French).— J pt. white haricot beans, 
about 2 qts. water, 2 onions, 3 potatoes, 1 carrot, bunch o£ 
herbs, white peppercorns, salt, 1 oz. butter, 2 tablespoonfuls 
of cream. Soak the beans overnight ; wash them well and 
drain in a colander, put into a saucepan and cover with three* 
to four pints of water, add two onions, two or three potatoes y 
a carrot, small bunch of herbs, some white peppercorns anc|. 

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salt, and let boil gently for four hours, stirring occasionally 
to prevent burning and adding more stock if required ; pass 
all through a hair sieve except the herbs, spices and carrot ; 
return the soup to the saucepan, let it boil up, add a small pat 
of fresh butter and two tablespoonf uls of hot cream. Serve 
with small fried croutons of bread. 

38. Julienne Soup. — Carrot, turnip, celery, small onions, 
lettuces, tarragon leaves. Clean and cut all into very fine 
strips, stew gently in butter, then add water and boil till 
tender. 

39. Lentil Soup. — This soup is very nourishing, and has 
many advantages over those of a similar kind. Soak one 
pint of lentils overnight; in the morning drain and wash 
thoroughly. Prepare and slice an onion, a carrot, a leek, 
and two sticks of celery, and fry in a saucepan in one ounce 
of dripping or butter. Pour four pints of water over, add the 
lentils, and simmer for about four hours. Rub through a 
hair sieve, boil up, and season to taste. Serve very hot, with 
dice of fried bread. 

40. Macaroni Soup. — 2 oz. macaroni, 1 pt. new milk, 
1 gill cream, £ oz. breadcrumbs, 1 small onion, and 1 pt. water. 
Set the milk and water on to boil, add salt to taste. Directly 
the milk and water reaches boiling-point, throw in the onion, 
and macaroni. Simmer for half an hour and then add the 
bread and cook for a quarter of an hour longer, pass all 
through a fine wire sieve, return to the pan, add chopped 
parsley to flavour, pepper and salt, and the cream. Serve 
very hot, with dice of fried bread or grated Parmesan 
cheese. 

41. Milk Soup. — 1 lb. potatoes, 2 leeks or 1 Spanish onion, 2 
sticks of celery, 2 oz. butter, 1 pt. milk, one tablespoonf ul crushed 
tapioca, chopped parsley, croutons. Scrub and peel and slice 
one pound of potatoes, cut up two leeks or a Spanish onion 
and some white celery. Put two ounces of butter in, a stew- 
pan, let it dissolve, and add the vegetables. Cover the pan, 
and let the contents cook over the fire for five minutes, shaking 
the pan to prevent them sticking to it. Pour in a quart of 
boiling water, add pepper and salt, and let the whole boil to 
a mash. Pass it through a wire sieve and return to the 
saucepan with one pint of milk. When it boils, sprinkle in a 
tablespoonful of crushed tapioca, while you stir the soup 

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Vegetarian Cookery 

quickly. Boil till the tapioca is clear. Serve with croutons 
of fried bread, and chopped parsley scattered over the soup 
after it is in the tureen. 

42. Mulligatawny Soup (Quickly Made).—! large 
onion) 1 apple, 2 02. butter, 1 tablespoonful curry powder r 
2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 3 cloves, 3 pts. vegetable stock, salt, 
lemon juice, boiled rice. Cut a large onion into thin rings 
and chop it finely J grate an apple, dissolve two ounces of 
butter in a saucepan, fry the onion in it, also three cloves, add 
one tablespoonful of curry powder, and two tablespoonfuls of 
flour, then stir in three pints of liquid and the chopped apple, 
let all boil for twenty minutes, season with salt and lemon-* 
juice, and serve with plain boiled rice. 

43. Naples Soup. — 3 pts. milk, a blade of mace, half a 
lemon, 1 onion, a tablespoonful of rice flour, 2 eggs, 3 oz. 
macaroni, parsley, seasoning. Place the milk in a saucepan 
with a blade of mace, the yellow rind of half a good lemon, 
and a small onion. Bring the soup to the boil, simmer all 
for a few moments, and strain. Mix the rice flour with a very 
little milk till smooth, and add to the flavoured milk, stir 
whilst all boil up together. Beat up two fresh eggs with a 
little pepper and salt, and into them pour gradually a pint of 
the soup, stirring all the time ; return to the saucepan, and 
make very hot, but not boiling. Have some well-boiled 
macaroni ready, cut it into quarter of an inch lengths, and 
add to the soup. Scatter a little chopped parsley over and 
serve. 

44. Neapolitan Soup. — 6 oz. haricot beans, 3 or 4 toma* 
toes, 1 beetroot, 1 onion, i stick celery, 2 oz. butter, pepper, 
salt, parsley, 3 pts. water. The beans should be soaked over- 
night, then placed in a saucepan with the butter and water, 
and gently brought to boiling point. The vegetables must be 
thoroughly cleansed and cut small, and added to the water 
when it boils. Season with pepper and salt, and boil for two 
and a half hours. Pass the soup through a hair sieve, return 
it to the saucepan, stir whilst it boils, and serve. After tho 
soup is in the tureen, scatter into it a little chopped parsley. 

45. Onion Soup (1). — 10 large onions, i lb. bread-crusts, 
2 large carrots, a root of celery, pepper and salt, 1 tablespoon* 
ful French vinegar, 2 yolks of eggs, 2 oz. butter. Pare and 
slice the onions, fry them brown in two ounces of butter* 

SO 

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Put them in a pan with five pints of boiling water, the bread- 
crusts, carrots, a small root of celery cut small, pepper and 
salt, arid boil together two hours. Press through a sieve and 
return to the pan. Before serving, beat two yolks of eggs 
with a tablespoonful of French vinegar and a little soup, pour 
this carefully into the pari, stirring one way for some minutes, 
but avoid boiling. 

46. Onion Soup (2).— 2 oz. of butter, 4 large onions, 1 oz* 
of flour, 2 pts. of milk) pepper and salt, 2 yolks of eggs, 
chopped parsley. This old-fashioned soup is very much 
appreciated on a cold day, and is excellent food for those who 
have colds. First melt the butter in a pan, and when it 
bubbles add the onions cut in thin slices. Let these simmer 
slowly for quite half an hour without browning, then stir in 
the flour, arid by degrees one pint and a half of hot milk. 
Season with pepper and salt, and cook slowly till the onion is 
quite soft. Pass through a sieve, and return to the saucepan. 
As the soup is heating, beat two yolks of eggs with half a pint 
of milk. Take the soup from the fire, add the eggs, and beat 
all together. Pour into a hot tureen, sift chopped parsley 
over, and serve. Hand grated Parmesan cheese with this. 

47. Onion Soup (Maigre). — 2 large Spanish onions, 
4 or 5 potatoes, 1 stick celery, 1 oz. butter, £ pt» milk, pepper, 
and salt. Slice the onions, potatoes, and some celery ; boil till 
tender in a pint and a half of water ; pass through a sieve. 
Return it to the saucepan with half a pint of milk and butter. 
Season with pepper and salt, boil up, and serve. 

48. Parsnip Soup.— 6 or 8 parsnips, 1 small head of 
celery, 1 onion. Boil until quite tender : rub through a sieve, 
boil, add seasoning, and serve. It should be remembered 
that parsnips are sweet, so salt must be added to suit the taste. 

49. Pea Soup. — i pt. split peas, 2 onions, 1 carrot, 1 turnip, 
a small head of celery, a sprig of parsley, seasoning, water. 
Soak the peas overnight in cold water, put them on in three 
pints of fresh water, and boil for two hours ; have the vege* 
tables prepared and cut into pieces, add them and the 
seasoning, and boil for about two hours longer or till the 
peas are quite tender, stir occasionally to prevent them burn- 
ing. Press the whole through a sieve, return it to the sauce- 
pan, and stir till it boils up, so that the peas do not stick 
to th6 bottom. 

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Vegetarian Cookery 

50. Pur6e of Lentils (1).— £ pt. Egyptian lentils, 2 qts. 
water, 1 oz. butter, 1 large red carrot, 1 onion, a few pepper- 
corns, piece of sugar, salt. Choose Egyptian lentils rather than 
French, as the former are a better colour ; soak them in 
water overnight, they will absorb a good quantity ; next day 
put them into a saucepan with two quarts of water, the 
vegetables, peppercorns, and butter ; boil them well for about 
an hour and a half ; when tender, rub them through a hair 
sieve. Put the pur6e into a saucepan with a small lump of 
sugar, stir till boiling, season to taste, and serve with fried 
croutons of bread. In summer, some boiled green peas may 
be served in the soup. 

51. Pur6e of Lentils (2).— Take J pt. of yellow lentils ; 
soak them for twelve hours ; wash them well ; reserve them. 
Place an ounce of clarified butter in a deep saticepan ; 
as soon as it melts add to it an onion peeled and sliced, a 
sprig of parsley, thyme, and marjoram, and a bayleaf tied 
together. Fry for ten minutes, stirring all the time. Add 
the lentils and a quart of water. Place the lid on, draw the 
pan to the side of the fire, and simmer slowly for an hour 
and a half or two hours. As soon as all the vegetables are 
thoroughly cooked, rub them through a sieve into a clean 
saucepan. Return to the fire; mix an ounce of flour with 
half an ounce of butter to a smooth paste by means of half a 
wine-glassful of cold milk (skim milk will do). Place rather 
less than half a pint of milk, or skim milk, in a clean sauce- 
pan ; as soon as it boils add the mixed flour and butter, and 
stir over the fire until of the consistency of cream. Add this 
to the soup by degrees, stirring all the time, and continue to 
stir for five minutes. Then add pepper and salt to taste, and 
strain through a heavy gravy strainer into a hot soup-tureen. 
Serve with fried crusts, handed separately. 

52. Pur6e of Potatoes. — Take 1 lb. of peeled potatoes 
and 4 oz. of peeled onions ; slice them thinly. Put 1 oz. of 
butter in a clean deep stewpan. Directly it melts add the 
onions and potatoes together, with a bunch of herbs, i.e, 
thyme, parsley, and a bayleaf all tied together ; six pepper- 
corns and a couple of cloves tied up in a bit of muslin. Cook 
slowly and stir all the time, for ten or twelve minutes, but do 
not let the vegetables acquire much colour. Then add a 
quart of water, or a quart of skim milk ; cover the pan, draw 

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Soups 



it on to one side of the fire, and cook slowly for an hour and 
a half. Rub through a sieve into a clean saucepan ; return the 
pan to the fire. Mix an ounce of flour with half an ounce of 
butter to a paste with half a wine-glassful of cold milk ; add 
to it by degrees not quite half a pint of absolutely boiling milk 
(skim milk will do). Stir over the fire until the mixture 
thickens, then add it to the puree, and stir over the fire for ten 
minutes. Add pepper and salt to taste, make very hot, strain 
through a heated gravy strainer into a hot soup-tureen, and 
serve at once with fried crusts, handed separately. 

53. Rice Soup. — £ lb. rice, 1 onion, 1 head of celery, 1 
turnip, 1 pt. milk. Cut up and fry in butter, then boil in 
water till tender, and rub through a sieve. Add the rice and 
boil till tender, and season with pepper and salt. Add the 
milk, boiled separately, and serve with grated cheese. 

54. Tomato Soup. — Half a quart tin of tomatoes (or 4 
fresh ones), a slice of onion, carrot, and turnip, 1 clove, 1 oz. 
of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 pt. of water, % pt. of milk, and 
seasoning. Slice the vegetables and put them with the 
tomatoes, clove, and water into a saucepan. Simmer gently 
for one hour. Rub through a colander or sieve. Melt the 
butter, stir in the flour* and cook gently for a few minutes ; 
add the milk gradually. When boiling, pour in the soup. 
Reheat and season. If fresh tomatoes are used, more water 
will be required. 

55. Vegetable Soup (1). — 1 lb. each of celery, turnips, 
and carrots, £ lb. each of beetroot and onions, a handful of 
parsley, b pt. dried green peas, 2 oz. pearl barley, 4 oz. 
butter, seasoning. Wash and steep the peas and barley for 
twelve hours, put into a pan with a gallon of water, let boil 
up, remove the scum, add the vegetables, and let all boil 
together for about three hours until quite tender ; rub the 
soup through a sieve, return it to the saucepan with the butter 
cut in small pieces, stir till boiling ; if not sufficiently thick, 
add a little pea or lentil flour rubbed till smooth with a little 
cold water ; season to taste and serve with a good sprinkling 
of chopped parsley on the surface. 

56. Vegetable Soup (2).— 1 cauliflower, 2 carrots, 
a large onions, 2 small turnips, 1 head of celery, 6 
large potatoes, 3 large tomatoes, 1 pt. of milk, 2 oz. of 
butter, 2 qts. of water, pepper and salt; fried bread or 

33 c 

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Vegetarian Cookery 

toast. Wash the cauliflower, break it in small branches, placd 
it in two quarts of boiling water with a little salt, arid let 
simmer till tender. Meanwhile, put all the other vegetables 
(sliced) into a frying-pan with the butter, and cook them a 
light brown ; add these to the cauliflower and let the whole 
simmer for three hours. Just before serving add the boiled 
milk and salt and pepper to taste. Serve fried bread or toast 
cut into small dice with all vegetable soups. 

57. Vermicelli Soup.— J lb. vermicelli ; I qt. vegetable 
stock. Boil the vermicelli for five minutes ; boil the stock, 
and add the vermicelli at once. 



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SIMPLE VEGETABLE RECIPES 

58. Artichokes, Jerusalem, Boiled.— To each £ gall, 
water add 1 heaped teaspoonful of salt. Wash, peel, and 
shape the artichokes in round or oval form, throwing 
each, when ready, into slightly acidulated cold water ; 
put them into a saucepan with salted cold water to cover ; 
let them boil gently till tender ; take them up, drain and 
serve plain On a serviette, or place on a hot dish and pour 
over them a little melted butter or white sauce, and send 
more to table in a tureen. 

59. Artichokes, Mashed.— Boiled artichokes, 1 oz. 
butter, white pepper, and salt. Boil the artichokes as in the 
preceding recipe, drain and press the water from them, beat 
them with a fork till free from lumps or rub them through a 
coarse sieve, put them into the saucepan with the butter, 
white pepper, and salt to taste, and stir till very hot, then 
serve. A little cream is an improvement. 

60. Asparagus (Sauce Poivrade).— Wash and scrape 
a bundle of asparagus in the usual way. Cut all the stalks of 
a perfectly even length. Boil in hot salted water till done. 
This will take about twenty to twenty-five minutes. Then 
drain upon a clean vegetable-cloth carefully, in order to avoid 
breaking. Dish up on a thick square of lightly-toasted bread, 
which must be dipped in the water the asparagus was boiled 
in. Serve with cold poivrade sauce, handed separately* 
Poivrade sauce is made as follows : Beat up four tablespoon* 
f uls of Lucca oil till it "creams," then add by degrees a table- 
spoonful of tarragon vinegar, a very little chilli vinegar, a gill 
of good brown sauce, a tablespoonful of finely-chopped 
parsley, a dessertspoonful of chopped shallots, two or three 
drops of tabasco, a pinch of sugar, and salt to taste. Work 
well together with a whisk till of the consistency of thick 

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cream, then place on ice till required for use. This sauce is 
good for serving with plainly-boiled green artichokes. 

6x. Asparagus, to Boil.— Scrape very clean the white 
part of the stalks of some asparagus, taking care not to injure 
the green heads, throw them into water, tie them with tape 
(not string) in small bundles, cut the stalks in even lengths ; if 
you have not a vegetable strainer on which to lift them when 
boiled, wrap each bundle in muslin to prevent the heads being 
broken off. Have ready a wide stewpan of boiling water, 
allowing a tablespoonf ul of salt to two quarts, and a tiny chip 
of soda if the water be very hard ; lay in the asparagus, and 
let them boil gently and uncovered for fifteen to twenty 
minutes till tender. Dip a slice of toasted bread in the water, 
lay it on a hot dish, carefully lift the asparagus, drain, remove 
the strings, place on the toast the heads all one end, pour 
some melted butter or good Bechamel sauce over the heads, 
and serve hot with the meat course, or as a vegetable 
entree. 

62. Asparagus, to Steam.— Prepare the asparagus as 
above, tie them in bundles of even length, stand them 
upright in a stewpan of boiling salted water, letting the green 
heads come above the water ; they will be cooked in the 
steam by the time the stalks are tender.. 

63. Beetroots a la Crfeme.— 2 boiled beetroots, a teacup- 
ful of milk, 1 02. butter, 1 yolk of egg, i teaspoonf ul of flour, 
pepper and salt. Cut the beetroots into small pieces, dissolve 
the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, add the milk, and stir 
till boiled ; carefully add the yolk of egg (off the fire), season 
with pepper and salt, add the beetroots, and stew for ten 
minutes ; serve hot. 

64. Beetroots, Boiled. — Beetroots, boiling water. Very 
carefully rinse the earth off the beetroots, most carefully 
avoid breaking the skin, root, or crown in any way, or they 
will lose their fine colour in boiling. Put into boiling water, 
keep them well covered, and boil till tender. If to be served 
hot, rub off the skin, cut the beet into thick slices, cover with 
melted butter sauce or with oiled butter, pepper and salt, and 
send to table. For salads, pickles, &c, let the beet cool, then 
rub off the skin and use as directed. 

65. Broad Beans a la Maitre d'Hdtel.— A vegetable 
dishful of shelled broad beans, 1 oz. butter, a tablespoonf ul of 

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flour, b pt. water, parsley, seasonings. Shell the beans as 
freshly gathered as possible, and parboil them sufficiently 
long to allow the skin to be removed. Then boil them in the 
usual manner with a sprig or two of parsley. When quite 
tender, which is best ascertained by tasting one, drain and 
serve with the following sauce poured over them: Mix the 
butter with a tablespoonf ul of flour, add the water, pepper and 
salt to taste, and plenty of minced parsley ; stir well until the 
sauce boils. 

66. Broad, or Windsor, Beans, Boiled. — Broad beans 
should be freshly gathered and young, and bought in the pods. 
Shell the beans, rinse them in cold water, put into boiling 
salted water (a heaped tablespoonf ul of salt to half a gallon 
of water) and boil rapidly and uncovered till tender, then 
drain in a colander, dish and serve plainly or with parsley and 
butter sauce. If old, the skins should be removed before 
serving, and the beans tossed in a little butter while re- 
heating. 

67. Broccoli and Cauliflower, Boiled.— Broccoli or 
cauliflower, a heaped tablespoonf ul of salt to each J gall, of 
water, a piece of crust of bread tied in muslin. Cut off the 
stalk close to the flower, notch it crossways, and trim the 
inside leaves to a level with it ; then let it remain (head down- 
wards) in cold salted water or vinegar and water for nearly an 
hour ; carefully inspect it, and if free from insects, put into 
a saucepan with boiling salted water, add the crust of bread, 
boil gently with the stalk upwards and the pan uncovered 
until done, when it must immediately be removed with a 
slice, for if left in the water it will become sodden and 
broken and the colour spoilt ; if boiled too quickly the 
flower will be broken. Pour a little melted butter over the 
broccoli and serve very hot. If required to be especially 
delicate in flavour, the broccoli may be blanched for five 
minutes, the water thrown away and fresh salted boiling water 
substituted. Broccoli and cauliflower can be served in 
similar ways ; broccoli is generally considered more delicate 
in flavour than cauliflower. 

63. Brussels Sprouts, Boiled.— Brussels sprouts, a heaped 
tablespoonf ul of salt to each £ gall, water, a tiny chip of soda, 
a crust of bread tied in a piece of muslin. Cut the sprouts 
from the stalks, rejecting all discoloured and decayed leaves, 

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-j- J p- 1 



nicely wash them in cold water ; have ready a pan of boiling 
water, add the salt and a small chip of soda. Throw in the 
draine4 sprouts and crust of bread, and let them boil rapidly 
and uncovered until tender ; at once drain them and press out 
the water, and send quickly to table in a hot dish. If pre- 
ferred, after draining, put them into a saucepan in which a 
good lump of butter is dissolved, and toss them in this; 
sprinkle with white pepper and lemon- juice, and serve. 

69. Cabbage or Savoys, to Boil. — Cabbages, or savoys, 
a tablespoonful of salt to £ gall, of water, a very small piece 
of soda, and a crust tied in a piece of muslin. Remove all 
dead or decayed leaves, cut off the stalk as close as possible to 
the cabbages, notch the stalk crossways, and if the cabbages 
are large, cut them in quarters ; soak them in cold salted water 
to remove all insects, rinse them in fresh water, drain in a 
polander, then throw into fast boiling salted water with the soda 
and crust of bread, press them down in the water once or twice 
and let them boil rapidly and uncovered till tender, from half 
an hour to three-quarters, or for summer greens about twenty 
minutes, Drain in a colander, press out all the water, and 
3end them to table very hot. 

70. Cabbage Mould. — A white cabbage, butter, pepper 
and salt. Boil a cabbage in the ordinary way, squeeze it in a 
colander till perfectly dry, then chop it small, add a little 
butter, pepper and salt. Press the whole very tightly into a 
well-buttered china mould and bake for an hour. When 
cooked, turn Qut and serve. 

71. Carrots, leashed.— 6 large carrots, i£ oz. butter, a 
dessertspoonful of flour, seasonings. Boil old carrots in 
salted water till tender, then rub them through a wire sieve ; 
melt the butter in a saucepan, stir the flour into it until 
cooked ; add the mashed carrot and stir over the fire till quite 
hot, adding pepper and salt and a little more butter or cream 
if desired; 

72. Carrots, to Boil. — Carrots should be scrubbed and 
scraped, not peeled, as the red is the best part ; the skin of 
young carrots is easily rubbed off with a cloth after they are 
boiled. 

73. Cauliflower. — Remove the outer leaves, cut off the 
stalk close to the bottom, and let the cauliflower lie in salt and 
water for an hour to draw out of place any insects that may 

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J>e present, then in a pfin of boiling water to which has been 
adcjed a little salt and a small piece of soda. Boil slowly with 
the stalk upwards and the lid off the pan for twenty to twenty- 
five minutes. Take up with a slice and drain. Place in a 
dish and serve with melted butter. 

74. Cauliflower with Black Butter.— A mediunj-sized 
cauliflower, 2 oz. butter, a pinch of parsley, a tablespoonful of 
French vinegar. Cook the cauliflower as in the previous 
recipe, cut it into neat pieces, arrange them like cutlets on a 
hpt dish, sprinkle with cayenne or coralline pepper ; pour 
black butter over and serve at once. The black butter should 
be made thus, just before it is required for use : Fry the 
fresh butter ti)l a rich golden colour, throw into it a small 
handful of small washed and dried parsley sprigs; when 
crisp, drain them and put pver the cauliflower, add the French 
yinegar to the pan, stir till it boils, return the butter to it, then 
pour all over the cauliflower. 

75. Celery, Boiled.— 3 or 4. heads of celery, 1 oz. butter, 
1 oz. flour, seasoning, toast. Scrape and wash three or four 
jieads of white celery ; split each head into four, lengthways, 
tie them firmly together, as you would for asparagus, cut in 
equal lengths, put into a saucepan, cover with boiling water 
and a teaspoonful of salt, and boil for about an hour or till 
tender. Put the butter into a small saucepan ; when melted, 
stir in the flour and mix till smooth. Lift the celery carefully 
put of the saucepan, drain it, add half a pint of the water in 
which it was cpokeo^ to the butter and flour, stir well until 
boiling ; season with pepper and add more salt and a little 
caramel colouring if required. Place the celery on a hot 
dish, on toast dipped in the water in which the celery was 
boiled ; remove the strings, pour the sauce over, and serve. 

V 76. Celery Roots in Cream Sauce.— Celery roots, 1 oz. 
butter, i oz., flour, £ p£. mixed milk and cream, 2 yolks of 
eggs, seasoning. Pare the roots and let soak in cold water 
for half an, hour; drain and throw into boiling milk and 
water, add a teaspponf u) of salt, and boil for half an hour. 
YJhen tender, drain, cut into slices, cover with cream sauce, 
and serve hot, 

Cream §auce.r— Melt the butter in a small saucepan, stir 
into it ^n even tablespoonful of fine flour ; when quite smootty 
stir in the milk and cream mixed, stir till well boiled, then 

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draw it aside from the fire and let it cool a little ; add the 
beaten yolks of eggs, a little salt, cayenne, and lemon-juice ; 
carefully warm without boiling and use immediately. 

77. Celery Souffles. — i lb. white part of celery, a small 
blade of mace, one slice onion, 1 oz. flour, 1 oz. grated Par- 
mesan cheese, i| gills milk, £ bayleaf, 1 oz. butter, pepper 
and celery salt, cayenne or Nepaul pepper, 3 eggs. Trim 
and wash the celery, cut it into slices, blanch in salted water, 
and drain. Put the milk, celery, bayleaf, mace, and onion in 
a stewpan, and boil till tender. Remove the mace and bay- 
leaf, and pass the celery, &c, through a fine sieve. Put a gill 
cf water and the butter in a stewpan, add a pinch of celery 
salt, and stir in the flour as soon as the water boils. Work 
vigorously with a wooden spoon for several minutes over the 
fire, put in the celery puree, let cool a little, and add the 
grated cheese. Stir in the yolks of two eggs and one whole 
egg. This must be done gradually. Whisk the whites of 
two eggs to a stiff froth, and mingle with the mixture. 
Season with a little cayenne or Nepaul pepper. Three parts 
fill some paper or china ramequin or souffle cases. Bake in 
a hot oven for about ten minutes. Arrange the cases on a 
dish with folded napkin, and serve immediately. 

78. Chipped Potatoes or Artichokes. — Wash and peel 
the potatoes. Slice them into rounds about the size of a. 
shilling or two-shilling piece, and the thickness of a worn 
sixpence. Wash and dry them very thoroughly. Put enough 
oil into a deep Stewpan to half fill it when melted. Let it 
melt. ' Wait until the blue smoke rises freely. Then add the 
potatoes a few at a time, and fry to a golden brown. Take 
out, drain on clean paper. Place in a hot dish on the top of 
the stove, and when all the potatoes are cooked, dust lightly 
with salt, and send to table. 

79. Cucumbers k la Creme. — 2 small cucumbers, 1 oz, 
butter, J gill cream, 1 teaspoonful caster sugar, salt, pepper, 
nutmeg, chopped parsley. Peel the cucumber as thinly as 
possible. Split each in two lengthwise, and remove the 
seeds, then cut the pieces in cubes of even size. Cook them 
in salted water for fifteen minutes, take up and drain on a 
sieve. Put the cooked cucumber in a saute-pan with the 
butter. Season with salt, pepper, and nutmeg, add. the sugar 
and the cream, and bring to the boil ; shake the pan well 

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during this process. Dish up, sprinkle over a little chopped 
parsley, and serve hot. 

80. French Beans and Scarlet Runners, to Boil.— 
To each £ gall, of water allow a heaped tablespoonful of salt 
and a very small chip of soda. Only young beans are fit for 
thus cooking. Cut off the heads and tails and a strip from 
each side to remove the strings, then divide the beans into 
lozenge shapes, or cut them in thin strips lengthways in a 
slanting direction, put them as they are cut into cold salted 
water. When ready, put into a pan of boiling water with the 
salt and soda, and let boil quickly and uncovered until 
tender, when they will sink to the bottom of the saucepan ; 
drain them at once, dish and serve, either plain or with 
butter. 

81. Frying Batter, Quickly Prepared.— One cupful of 
self-raising flour, tepid water, 1 egg t salt. Make a batter of 
the consistency of double cream with the self-raising flour 
and tepid water, then add the well- beaten yolk, and lastly 
the white of egg whipped to a stiff froth. Use immediately 
for fritters, &c. 

82. Frying Batter. — 4 oz. flour, 1 tablespoonful of salad 
oil, 1 gill of tepid water, 2 whites of eggs. Mix the flour with 
the oil and tepid water till quite a smooth paste, and allow it 
to stand for an hour or two. When required for use, whip 
the whites of eggs to a very stiff froth, and add them as 
lightly as possible to the mixture. 

83. Green Corn Fritters. — 1 tin green corn, 2 eggs, 3 
tablespoonfuls flour, 1 tablespoonful Plasmon. Put the flour 
and Plasmon into a basin and mix well together, beat the 
eggs, add them and the green corn to the flour and Plasmon 
and mix well ; shape into fritters ; fry in boiling oil to a light 
brown colour ; serve very hot. 

Note. — Salt and pepper may be added to taste. But these 
fritters may be served as a sweet ; in that case only use a 
pinch of salt, and serve the fritters with castor sugar. 

84. Greens and Sprouts, to Boil.— All sprouts are 
boiled uncovered in salted water with a bit of soda in it ; 
previously the leaves should be taken off the stalks, and 
unless the stalks are very crisp they should be rejected ; if 
crisp, put the stalks alone into the saucepan and let them boil 
for a few minutes before adding the leaves. The freshly- 

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gathered green leaves of broccoli are excellent if stripped 
from the mid-ribs, boiled, drained, and chopped fine and 
treated like spinach. 

85. Haricot Beans, White.— At all seasons these should 
form an important item in every household, for not only are 
they a cheap, but, what is more important, a most nourishing 
food. In summer it is well to introduce haricot beans fre- 
quently into the menu, either boiled, dressed with sauces, or 
in soups or salads. Those usually sold in England are very 
dry and should be soaked for twelve hours in water, but if 
they are new and freshly dried, about two hours will be 
sufficient, and a small piece of soda may be added ;f the 
water be hard. 

86. Haricot Beans, to Boil.— Put the soaked beans into 
a saucepan of cold water with salt and a whole onion, let 
them boil up, then simmer till tender — about two hours. 
Drain off the water, let the beans dry in the pan, add some 
butter, pepper and salt ; do not stir, but shake the beans over 
the fire till they are seasoned with them, and serve. Minced 
parsley can also be added if liked, and with this a spoonful 
of lemon-juice or good vinegar is an improvement. 

87. Leeks, to Boil. — Leeks when young may be served 
alone as a plain vegetable. Trim off the roots, the outer 
leaves and the green ends, and cut the white stalks into about 
six-inch lengths. Tie them in bundles, put them into boiling 
water with two teaspoonfuls of salt and a tablespoonful of 
vinegar and let them boil until quite tender ; drain them, 
remove the strings and serve on toast (like asparagus) with 
melted butter or white sauce over them. 

88. Lettuces, Stewed.— 5 cos lettuces, butter, gravy, 
seasonings. Trim off the outer leaves, cut away the stalk, 
wash the lettuces thoroughly, boil in salted water, with the 
cover off the pan, till tender ; twenty-five minutes is the 
usual time. Press all the water out of them ; chop them a 
little ; heat in a stewpan with a small piece of butter and 
pepper and salt ; stew till rather dry, add a little lemon-juice ; 
serve hot with fried sippets round them. 

89. Lettuces, Stewed, and Green Peas.— 1 qt. peas, a 
cabbage lettuce, a tablespoonful each of chopped chives and 
parsley, seasonings, 2 sprigs of mint, 2 oz. butter, a dessert- 
spoonful of flour. First boil a quarf of peas, strain them, and 

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place in a stewpan with nearly an ounce of butter, shred a 
firm cabbage lettuce finely and mix it with the peas and a 
tablespoonful of chopped chives, the same quantity of 
chopped parsley, and a seasoning of caster sugar, salt, pep- 
per, and finely-chopped mint. Cover the stewpan and let all 
simmer very slowly for eight or ten minutes. Mix a dessert- 
spoonful of flour with one ounce of butter, add this to the 
peas, shake over the fire for a few minutes, and dish up. As 
a garnish, use s)ices of hard-boiled egg and croutons of fried 
bread. 

50. Onions, Fried. — Spanish onions, frying oil. Spanish 
onions are the best for this dish. Have a sufficient quantity 
of boiling oil ready; it must be quite boiling. Peel the^ 
onions, and cut them in half-inch-thick slices and lay them 1 
in the frying basket very carefully, so as not to break themj 
Boil for about five minutes, and as each relay is done lif 
them out carefully with a draining slice, and place in a ho( 
dish in the oven. See that the oil boils up again before! 
cooking the next supply. ! 

91. Onions, Stewed. — 5 or 6 Spanish onions, broth to 
cover, brown roux. Peel the onions very carefully, avoid 
much cutting of the roots and tops or they will fall to pieces 
in cooking, place in a stewpan large enough for them to form 
a layer (not a pile), add water sufficient to cover, and let stew 
for two hours or longer if very large. Thicken some of the 
stock with brown roux ; dish the onions whole or in quarters 
and pour the sauce over them. If preferred, onions may 
be stewed with a good piece of butter only ; this will produce 
sufficient moisture if the stewpan be kept covered and the 
stewing done very gradually. 

92. Parsnips, to Boil.— Parsnips, 1 tablespoonful of salt 
to i gall, of boiling water. If the parsnips be young they 
require oply scraping, but if old they must be thinly peeled 
and cut in quarters. Boil them quickly till tender, drain 
them, and serve in a vegetable dish. 

93. Parsnips with Cream.— 3 or 4 winter parsnips, a 
tablespoonful of fine flour, 2 tablespoonfuls white stock, 1 gill 
of milk or cream, J 02. butter (cut up small), mace, pepper, 
salt. Wash and scrape the roots well, throw them into boil- 
ing water, and cut them into any desired shape. Mix a table- 
spoonful of fine flour with a teacupful of milk, a blade of 

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mace, pepper and salt to taste. Stir till the sauce boils up, 
add half an ounce of butter, put in the parsnips, hold the pan 
over the fire, and give it a toss round ; do not use a spoon. 
Stand the pan beside the fire for ten minutes till the parsnips 
get thoroughly hot, but take care that the sauce does not 
boil. Serve on a hot dish with toasted sippets placed 
round. 

94. Peas (Green), to Boil. — Green peas should be freshly 
gathered, and, if bought, should be procured in the pods, for if 
these are fresh, juicy and green, it is certain the peas will also 
be so. Wash them when shelled in running water, put on to 
cook in boiling water with a teaspoonf ul of sugar to each quart 

v of water and one or two sprigs of fresh mint ; neither soda 
'.nor salt should be used — the former renders them tasteless, 
the latter causes the outer skin to crack and fall off. A leaf or 
two of spinach improves the colour and a lettuce improves the 
flavour. Boil with the cover off the pan. Drain as soon as 
tender. 

95. Peas (Green) with Butter (French Style).— 1 pt. 
shelled peas, mint, sugar, $ oz. fresh butter, salt, pepper. 
Shell peas until you have about a pint, and throw into a quart 
of boiling water, add a sprig of mint, and a dessertspoonful 
of white sugar. Boil fast till cooked, then strain off the 
water. Put the peas into a clean stewpan and add the fresh 
butter and a pinch of pepper and salt. Toss over the fire for 
a few minutes, remove the mint, and serve. 

96. Peas (Tinned or Bottled), to Cook. — 1 pt. peas, 
£ 02. butter, salt, sugar, sprig of mint. Strain the water from 
the peas into a saucepan, adding half a teaspoonf ul of salt and 
half that quantity of sugar ; when the water boils throw in the 
peas and sprig of fresh mint, and cook them for seven minutes ; 
drain off the water, take out the mint, add the butter and 
pepper ; put the saucepan again on the stove, and shake it 
every two or three minutes until the butter is dissolved, when 
the peas will be ready for serving. 

97. Plasmon Mashed Potatoes. — 1 lb. potatoes, 1 oz. 
butter, 3 tablespoonfuls Plasmon stock, pepper and salt to 
taste. Steam or boil the potatoes. When done, strain well 
to get off all the moisture, mash them, add the butter, salt, 
pepper, and Plasmon ; beat well with a fork, pass through a 
sieve (if desired) ; dish, and brown in the oven, 

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Another Way.— Whip up the Plasmon stock to a thick 
cream, and then add it to the potatoes, and mix as above. 

98. Potatoes, Baked.— The potatoes should be scrubbed 
till clean, rinsed and wiped— only quite sound ones being 
used. A vety thin slice should be cut from each end, 
and they should be set on a grid in a hot oven where they will 
at once begin to cook. If served as soon as cooked they will 
be of grand flavour and sweet, the inside mealy, and the out- 
side part next the skin flaky; if overdone they become 
heavy inside and hard outside. 

99. Potatoes, Boiled.— Boiled potatoes are in the most 
nourishing condition when boiled in their skins or "jackets." 
With a brush and cold water make them perfectly free of 
soil, wipe them, cut a thin slit round the potatoes lengthways 
or a thin slice off each end, and at once put them into enough 
boiling water to completely cover 'them. Cover the pot and 
let them boil till they can readily be pierced with a fork ; this 
time will depend on their age and variety, from twenty to 
forty-five minutes. Remove from the fire and drain off every 
drop of water, return the pot to the stove, fold a little clean 
cloth over them — do not put the cover on again, but let the 
potatoes drain until perfectly dry — then serve at once in a 
vegetable-dish lined with a warmed serviette. If pared before 
cooking, do so as thinly as possible, not thicker than a sheet 
of paper, as most of the nourishing part of the tuber lies close 
to the skin, and a thick paring removes it. Rinse them in cold 
water, then put into boiling salted water ; remove as soon as 
tender, not a moment later, and treat them as when boiled 
with the jackets on ; they will then be light, mealy, and dry, 
delightf ul to eat and easy of digestion. 

100. Potatoes, Breadcrumbed.— Potatoes, butter, bread- 
crumbs, seasoning. Take some freshly-cooked boiled potatoes 
which are unbroken, cut them in halves, season them with 
cayenne and salt, pour some warmed butter over them, roll 
them in browned breadcrumbs, then lay them on a buttered 
tin dish, and bake them in a quick oven for a quarter of an 
hour. Take them up carefully and arrange them in a circle 
on a fancy paper on a hot dish and garnish them with sprigs 
of parsley. 

101. Potatoes, Duchess. — 1 lb. boiled potatoes, 1 oz. fine 
flour, 1 teaspoonful baking powder, a little salt, £ gill milk, 2 

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eggs, frying fat. Rub the potatoes through a wire sieve, mix 
them with the flour and baking-powder (mixed), the well- 
beaten eggs and salt, lastly add the milk. Have ready a pan 
of boiling oil, drop in the mixture from a tablespoon and fry 
a nice brown ; drain, and serve piled on a dish. 

102. Potatoes, Slices and Ribbons, Fried.— For these 
the secret is to pare and slice them thinly, rinse them in cold 
water and dry them in the folds of a cloth : put them into 
boiling oil when they are put on to cook. Cover the pan for a 
minute or two to prevent the escape of steam ; this will lower 
the heat of the oil and let them get light and mealy inside ; 
then uncover the pan, heat the oil quickly, turn the slices to 
prevent their being scorched, and when crisp turn them on 
to kitchen paper, sprinkle them with pepper and salt, and 
serve very hot. Potatoes thus cooked are easy of digestion, 
being quite free from grease. 

103. Potatoes, Mashed.— For mashed potatoes cook as 
for boiled potatoes ; when strained dry, they should be im- 
mediately mashed, and during this process should be left on 
the stove, beating and mashing them light with a wire whisk, 
or pressing them through a potato masher or wire sieve ; in 
a small saucepan melt a lump of butter, then put to it a little 
milk, boil up, and beat it lightly into the potato over the stove 
and serve at once. If they have been kept hot they will be 
light and fluffy. 

104. Potato Mould. — 2 lb. boiled potatoes, butter, 1 egg. 
Mash the potatoes whilst hot, add an ounce of butter boiled 
with a little milk, just sufficient to make them moist arid light, 
butter a mould rather thickly, put in the mixture, stand it in a 
warm place for a few minutes, then turn it out on a buttered 
sheet, brush it over with beaten egg, and place in the oven to 
get brown* 

105. Potatoes (New), Boiled. — 2 J lb. new potatoes, 
salted water, a few sprigs of mint, butter. Take some freshly- 
dug potatoes; well wash them and rub or scrape off the skins, 
put them and the mint into boiling salted water, arid boil them 
till tender ; try them with a fork to prove this, strain the water 
from them, leave them in the saucepan to dry with the lid 
partially off, put them in a hot vegetable-dish, pour an 
ounce of oiled butter over and serve. Chopped paisley 
may also be sprinkled over the potatoes if desired, 

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106. Potato Rolls.— Boil some peeled potatoes in salted 
water ; when tender, drain them and cover with a small clean 
cloth under the saucepan lid to absorb the steam and leave 
them dry ; press them through a potato masher or a wire 
sieve. Melt an ounce and a half of butter in the saucepan, 
put into it a pound of the mashed potatoes, an ounce of grated 
cheese, cayenne and salt to taste, and the beaten yolks of two 
small eggs, and mix well. Flour your hands and a pasteboard, 
make the mixture into neat little rolls like small sausages, roll 
them lightly in flour, place them on a well-buttered tin, brush 
them over with beaten raw egg, and bake brown in a quick 
oven ; place them on a hot dish, pour some hot butter over, 
and sprinkle with chopped parsley. Serve very hot. 

107. Potatoes (New), Saut6.— 2 i lb. potatoes, 2 or 3 oz. 
butter, parsley, seasoning. (1) Take about two pounds and a 
half of very small new potatoes, cook them in their skins for 
about a quarter of an hour, then peel them and cook them 
slowly for fifteen minutes in two or three ounces of butter ; 
toss them well, and at the time of serving sprinkle them 
with chopped parsley. (2) Pick but the same amount of 
potatoes, choosing them as small as possible, and all of the 
same size. Rub them clean in a cloth, and put them in a 
saucepan with plenty of butter and ground white pepper and 
salt to taste. Keep tossing them on the fire till they are 
of a uniform golden colour. Add more butter in small 
quantities during the process if necessary. 

108. Potatoes (Cold), Saute\ — 6 or 8 cold potatoes, 
i£ oz. butter, parsley, pepper, salt. Take six or eight cold boiled 
potatoes of medium size, and cut them into slices about quarter 
of an inch thick, and if you desire to iriake them look very 
neat, cut them all of the same size with a plain round cutter. 
Make an ounce and a half of butter hot in a frying or saute 
pan, put in the potatoes, arid cook them over a quick fire till 
they are a nice colour, turning them frequently, so that both 
sides are equally cooked ; sprinkle them with pepper and salt 
and a little finely-chopped parsley, drain them on a piece of 
paper spread on a hot plate ; then arrange on a dish and 
serve hot. 

109. Potatoes, Stewed.— -6 large potatoes, 2 oz. butter, 
1 clove garlic, juice of half a lemon, minced parsley, grated 
nutmeg, pepper, salt. Peel and cut the potatoes in quarters ; 

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rub a saucepan with garlic, put the butter in, and when it is 
melted add the potatoes and lightly fry them ; add a little hot 
water and the seasonings, and let stew very gently till the 
potatoes are quite done. Serve very hot, sprinkled with 
finely-chopped parsley. 

no. Puff Potatoes (Pommes Souffle^).— Dutch pota- 
toes, frying-oil, salt. Wash and peel thinly eight or more 
sound, medium-sized Dutch potatoes; cut them lengthwise 
into quarter-inch thick slices. In cutting the slices hold the 
knife somewhat slanting. Put the slices on a cloth, and cover 
up till wanted. Have a pan half filled with frying-oil, allow it 
to get moderately hot (not as hot as is necessary for ordinary 
frying). Plunge the potato slices (six or eight at a time) into 
the oil for about five minutes. Take up and drain them. Now 
let the oil get thoroughly hot (smoking hot). Place the pota- 
toes in a frying-basket and plunge them into the oil. Move 
the basket to and fro in the pan, and fry until the potato slices 
swell and acquire a golden colour. Then take them up, drain 
them, and sprinkle with a little fine salt. Serve immediately 
on a hot dish with a folded napkin or fancy dish-paper, and 
send to table at once. Where it is possible to have two pans 
of oil the frying operation can be more quickly performed. 

in. Salsify, Boiled (or the Vegetable Oyster).— 
Salsify roots, lemon- juice, salt, butter, cayenne. Wash and 
peel the salsify roots, keeping them very wet with water while 
you do so ; cut them into shreds and throw them into cold 
water with salt and lemon-juice in it as soon as prepared ; this 
is necessary or they will get discoloured. Put into boiling 
water with salt and lemon- juice to well cover them, boil for 
an hour, then drain ; toss them in a little warm butter, dust 
with cayenne and serve as garnish. N.B. — Salsify boiled as 
above directed can be finished in Bechamel sauce flavoured 
with chopped parsley and lemon-juice. This is called a la 
Poulette. 

112. Salsify, Fried. — A bundle of salsify, and seasonings. 
Wash a bundle of salsify roots, scrape them carefully and trim 
them, put each in a basin of water seasoned with lemon- juice 
as it is cleaned. Cook till tender in salted water, and drain 
when done ; put them in a pie-dish, and season with oil, 
vinegar, and chopped parsley. Have ready a light frying- 
batter, dip each salsify in this batter, and drop into boiling 

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oil ; fry a golden colour. Take up and drain on a cloth or 
paper. Dish up, and garnish with fried parsley. 

113. Salsify, Scalloped Vegetable Oysters. — 8 or 10 
salsify roots, white sauce, seasonings, 1 egg, lemon-juice, 
breadcrumbs. Scrape some salsify thoroughly, cut into short 
pieces, and lay in water for ten minutes ; boil till tender, 
drain, mix with a rich white sauce, flavoured with essence 
of anchovy, pepper, and celery salt; blend a beaten egg 
with it, and lastly, add a little lemon- juice. Butter some 
scallop shells, sprinkle browned breadcrumbs over them, fill 
with the mixture, put a few more fried breadcrumbs on 
the top, and slightly brown with the salamander or in a 
quick oven. 

114. Seakale, Boiled. — Seakale must be washed, trimmed, 
tied in bundles, then placed in boiling salted water and 
boiled from fifteen to twenty minutes ; when sufficiently 
tender it must be drained and served on a slice of toast 
laid in a vegetable-dish ; white sauce or some other suitable 
sauce is then poured over and the dish sent at once to the table. 

115. Spinach, Boiled.— Pick over the spinach, removing 
the stalks and mid-ribs of the leaves, wash in several waters 
without bruising the leaves, throw them into a dry saucepan 
with the water that adheres to the leaves, add salt and a tiny 
bit of soda, let cook with the cover off the pan, stirring occa- 
sionally with a wooden spoon ; when tender, drain in a 
colander, press out as much water as possible, then press 
it in a cloth ; place on a board and chop very finely or rub 
through a sieve; return it to the pan with a little butter 
or cream, pepper, and a squeeze of lemon-juice. When 
hot, mould into a compact form and serve. Garnish with fried 
croutons, or sippets of dry toast and slices of hard-boiled eggs. 

116. Tomatoes, Baked. — Tomatoes, breadcrumbs, butter, 
seasonings. Halve six or eight ripe tomatoes, season with 
pepper and salt, sprinkle breadcrumbs lightly over them, and 
add a few drops of tarragon vinegar, if you have it. Divide 
about an ounce of butter into little pieces, and place these 
here and there upon the tomatoes. ,Bake in a moderate oven 
till browned, and serve very hot. 

117. Tomatoes, Fried. — 1 lb. tomatoes, 1 oz. butter, 
vinegar, pepper, and salt. Fried tomatoes are delicious and 
easily prepared, Cut the tomatoes into slices and fry in 

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butter till just brown. Add one tablespoonful of white 
vinegar, a few drops of tarragon, and if you have it a little 
chilli vinegar. Season with pepper and salt. Simmer for 
twenty minutes and serve. 

n8. Turnips, Boiled.— Peel them thickly and boil 
them in plenty of salted water ; when cooked, drain them 
well, mash them with a little milk, butter, pepper, and salt, 
and serve very hot. Swedish turnips are excellent when 
prepared in the above manner. 

ug. Turnip Tops. — Wash well in half a dozen waters ; 
remove all discoloured leaves. Cook in boiling water with 
the lid off from eighteen to twenty minutes, and allow a 
tablespoonful of salt and a bit of soda about the size of 
a very small walnut for each quart of water. Drain and 
press thoroughly. Dish upon a hot dish, and serve. 

120. Vegetable Marrow, Boiled or Steamed. — If 
well grown, the marrow has a very pleasant and distinctive 
flavour, and can be turned to good account in many ways. 
It is very usual to cut the marrows into pieces before boiling 
them, but they lose more of their flavour this way than if 
boiled whole. They can be peeled or not before cooking ; 
the former method, however, insures the absence of any 
water except that contained in the marrow itself. They are 
very nice steamed, and in that case will take from forty 
minutes to one hour to cook, according to the size. If boiled, 
fifteen minutes to three-quarters of an hour must be allowed, 
and the water must actually boil before putting them in. 
Melted butter should always be served with a boiled or 
steamed marrow either over the vegetable or separately, 
as preferred. 

121. Vegetable Marrow, Fried. — A marrow, salt, flour, 
frying-fat. For this a nice-sized marrow should be chosen, 
and after peeling it and taking out the seeds it should be cut 
into pieces about one inch and a half long and an inch wide. 
Sprinkle well with salt, and leave for an hour or two. Then 
press them in a cloth, squeezing out the superfluous water, 
but not breaking the pieces at alh Now dredge the pieces 
with flour, and plunge them into boiling oil. - When nicely 
browned, drain them on kitchen paper, and when quite free 
from grease dish them on a fancy paper. They can be dipped 
into egg and breadcrumbs, and then fried if preferred.. 

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122. Artichaut Vert, Beurre Fondu.— Trim the arti- 
choke carefully, and boil in salted water for about three- 
quarters of an hour. Pour a little oiled butter into the centre 
of the artichoke, and serve with more of the same butter in a 
sauceboat. 

123. Artichoke Bottoms. — Tin of artichoke bottoms, 
e g& breadcrumbs, frying-oil. Take a freshly-opened tin 
and wash with fresh cold water the artichoke bottoms, have 
ready some boiling water salted to taste, throw them in and 
boil for fifteen minutes, at once take them out and drain them 
dry. These precautions are necessary, for if there is delay, 
they become discoloured and unsightly. When cool, flavour 
them with pepper, dip into egg f then roll them in bread- 
crumbs, fry in boiling oil, and serve very hot. Instead of 
being fried, artichoke bottoms may after boiling as above 
be dressed with melted butter sauce slightly flavoured with 
lemon, or with cheese and sauce like cauliflower au gratin. 
They may also be served when quite cold in a salad. 

124. Asparagus Dainties.-— 3 French rolls, a bundle of 
asparagus, frying-oil, £ pt. white sauce or cream, 2 yolks 
of eggs, seasoning. Take the French rolls, cut them in 
halves, scoop out all the crumbs, leaving only the thin shells, 
let these get crisp in the oven, or fry them in deep oil. Take 
the tender parts of some boiled asparagus, cut it into one- 
third of an inch lengths, heat some cream or rich Bechamel 
sauce, mix with it the yolks of eggs, flavour with cayenne, 
salt, and nutmeg, stir in the asparagus, and make thoroughly 
hot without boiling ; fill the cases with this mixture, and 
garnish them with the asparagus heads laid on the mixture. 
Serve hot on a napkin. 

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125. Asparagus Sandwiches. — } pt. cooked asparagus 
points, i gill whipped cream, bread and butter, % gill mayon- 
naise sauce, £ gill aspic, salt, pepper, and cayenne. In the 
first instance make sure that the asparagus points, i.e., green 
parts of the stalks, are thoroughly cooked in salted water con- 
taining a small piece of lump sugar. Drain and rub them 
through a wire sieve. Put the puree in a basin to cool, then 
stir in gradually the mayonnaise sauce and the aspic jelly. 
The latter must be liquid, but on no account warm. Add the 
cream as the mixture begins to set. Season to taste. Cut 
some thin slices of bread, butter them lightly, and spread 
some of the prepared puree on each slice, then place them 
together as for ordinary sandwiches, and cut into rounds, 
oblongs, or squares. Arrange them on a dish or plate, fill up 
the centre with crisp salad and (if liked) some slices of hard- 
boiled eggs. 

126. Braised Onions. — 5 large Spanish onions, 2 tea- 
spoonfuls caster sugar, 2 oz. butter, 1 pt. vegetable stock. 
Peel evenly and remove the cores with a column cutter, and 
throw them into boiling water for fifteen minutes. While 
they are cooking, sprinkle some caster sugar on the bottom of 
a stewpan, and allow it to take a light colour. At once add a 
large piece of butter, put in the onions, and roll about to 
obtain an even colouring. Add some water or vegetable 
stock, put on a tight-fitting lid, and let them gradually 
braise in the oven for nearly four hours. 

127. Brussels Tops k la Franchise. — Boil the Brussels 
tops till thoroughly cooked and of a good green colour, then 
drain them upon a sieve, chop finely, and put them into a 
saucepan with two ounces of fresh butter and a little pepper, 
salt, and nutmeg ; toss well over a slow fire till all the butter 
is absorbed. Add a few drops of orange-juice and a table- 
spoonful of well-flavoured tomato pulp. Make very hot, and 
serve with tiny fleurons of puff pastry. These can easily be 
made from the " trimmings " from a tart. They are merely 
shapes of pastry, stamped out with a fancy cutter, and either 
baked in a very quick oven or fried in boiling oil. 

128. Cabbage, Savoury.— -A white-hearted cabbage, 
i£ oz. of butter, 4 oz. of grated cheese, seasonings. Cook 
a cabbage till perfectly done, take it up and drain from, 
it as much water as possible. Chop the cabbage finely,. 

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season with pepper and salt, and put some small piece9 of 
butter over it. Place in a pie-dish, scatter a good layer of 
grated cheese over. Bake for ten minutes and serve. 

129. Carrot Tartlets, Savoury. — 1 small bunch of 
carrots, 3 yolks and 1 white of egg, 1 tablespoonful sherry, 
2 oz. butter, £ pt. milk, 1 tablespoonful cream, seasoning, 
pastry. Wash and scrape the carrots, shred them, and put 
in a stewpan with the butter, stir over the fire for about four 
minutes, taking care that they do not brown, moisten with the 
milk, and cook gently till tender. Rub through a fine sieve, 
and return the puree to the stewpan ; add the sherry, and let 
it get thoroughly hot, then add the cream and the egg-yolks, 
season to taste with salt and white and cayenne pepper (a dust 
of each). Stir over the fire until the eggs are partly set, remove, 
and let cool a little. Whisk the white of egg to a stiff froth, 
and mix gently with the puree. Line a number of small patty- 
pans with puff paste, prick the bottoms, put some of the puree 
in each, and bake in a quick oven from ten to fifteen minutes. 
Dish and serve hot. 

130. Cauliflower au Gratin. — A medium-sized cauli- 
flower, i£ oz. butter, 1 oz. flour, £ pt. milk, 4 oz. grated 
cheese, seasoning. Cut off all the green leaves and trim 
the stalk so that the flower will stand evenly on the dish, 
flower upwards. Boil until just tender, but not soft, drain 
thoroughly, melt an ounce of butter in a saucepan, stir 
the flour into it till quite smooth. Then add the milk and 
stir quickly till well boiled, take it off the fire, add some 
small bits of fresh butter, and stir them into the sauce, then 
add two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, cayenne, and salt 
to taste ; pour it over the cauliflower, spreading it smoothly 
with a knife, sprinkle with two ounces of grated cheese, then 
brown in a quick oven or with a salamander. 

131. Cauliflower aux Tomates. — Boil a fresh cauli- 
flower in the usual way, then drain it carefully ; sprinkle with 
white pepper, and place on a very hot dish. Pour over it about 
half a pint of good tomato sauce, sprinkle with fried bread- 
crumbs, and then pour over four ounces of Dutch cheese 
which has been grated and melted in an enamelled saucepan, 
with a squeeze of lemon-juice, a dash of pepper, and a small 
bit of butter ; place in the oven till very hot, and serve 
garnished with fried croutons. 

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132. Celery a l'ltalienne.— 2 heads celery, ± pt. milk, 
2 oz. butter, 1 egg, breadcrumbs. Boil two heads of celery for 
ten minutes, drain and place in a stewpan with half a pint of 
milk, a piece of butter the size of an egg, pepper and salt to 
taste. Simmer gently till the celery is quite tender ; set aside 
to cool ; add a well-beaten egg ; butter a shallow pie-dish, 
sprinkle it thickly with breadcrumbs, and pour in the celery, 
&c, ; sprinkle breadcrumbs over the whole, put a few bits of 
butter on the top, and bake till it is set and the top brown. 

133. Choufleur Polonaise. — Take a freshly-boiled cauli- 
flower, drain it quickly and carefully, and saute it for ten 
minutes in two ounces of salted butter which has been 
carefully oiled and which has had a clove of garlic steeped in 
it Scatter fried breadcrumbs over it and serve quickly. 

134. Cucumbers a la Poulette. — Cut three cucumbers 
into lengths of an inch and a half, first peeling thinly, and put 
them to steep for a couple of hours in the following marinade : 
One teaspoonful each of salt, oil, and vinegar ; then drain all 
moisture from the cucumbers, and put them into a stewpan, 
with two ounces of butter, a little nutmeg, and a teaspoonful 
of caster sugar. Let them simmer gently over a slow fire for 
half an hour, or till they are quite tender. Pour off all the 
butter, and add a large spoonful of white sauce, a gill of 
cream, and the yolks of four eggs. Let them simmer gently 
for another ten minutes, but do not allow them to boil. When 
the sauce is very hot, serve, adding, just before sending to 
table, the juice of half a lemon and a teaspoonful of powdered 
parsley. 

135. Haricot (Mould or Souffl£). — 1 pt. haricots (soaked 
for twelve hours), 1 oz. of butter, half a tablespoonful of 
chopped parsley, 2 or 3 eggs, salt and pepper. Cook the hari- 
cots in enough water to well cover them for two hours, or until 
they are tender, without being mashed. Drain and pass them 
through a wire sieve ; add butter, salt, pepper, and parsley, 
and, lastly, the beaten eggs. Have ready a well-greased pint 
cake-tin or mould, cover with browned crumbs, put in the 
mixture, and steam, with greased paper over the top, for 
one hour. When the souffle is firm to the touch it is done. 
Turn out carefully, and coat entirely with some good, well- 
flavoured white sauce. This mixture is sometimes baked, in 
which case pour into a well-greased pie-dish and cook until a 

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nice colour. Should any of the souffle be left over, cut it into 
slices or form into balls, egg-and-breadcrumb, fry in hot 
butter or oil, and a dish of excellent rissoles will be the result. 

136. Haricots (Parisian). — 1 pt. haricot beans, 1 onion, a 
tablespoonful of chopped parsley, 1 to 2 oz. of butter, pepper 
and salt. Wash the haricots and soak them for twelve 
hours in soft water ; pick them over and reject all faulty ones ; 
put them into a saucepan, cover with cold water, add a whole 
onion (peeled) and let boil for about two hours ; take out the 
onion ; drain the beans in a colander, put the butter in the 
empty saucepan, when melted add the beans, parsley, pepper, 
and salt, and toss them over the fire till hot and well seasoned. 
A spoonful of lemon- juice is an improvement. 

137. Haricots Verts & la Maitre d'Hotel. — String a 
pound of French beans carefully, and cut each bean into very 
thin, long strips ; wash them well in half a dozen waters, and 
drain thoroughly upon a hair sieve. Have ready a saucepanful 
of boiling water, add to it a handful of salt, and then throw in 
the beans ; boil quickly till quite tender, then set upon a hair 
sieve, and pour over them a pint of cold water. Drain upon a 
vegetable cloth till all moisture is absorbed ; have ready an 
enamelled stewpan containing a gill of rich white or supreme 
sauce, add the beans, and, bit by bit, three ounces of fresh 
butter, a tablespoonful of finely-chopped parsley, a little nut- 
meg, and a dash of pepper; add salt to taste, and just a 
squeeze of lemon-juice ; toss vigorously till the beans are very 
hot and have absorbed most of the butter and sauce. Serve 
piled up in the centre of a hot dish and garnished with 
fleurons of pastry. 

138. Haricots Verts aux Fines Heroes.— String and boil 
a pound of French beans, then drain upon a hair sieve ; next 
place a little more than two ounces of fresh butter in a clean 
saute-pan, add a large tablespoonful of chopped and blanched 
parsley, three finely-minced shallots, a little grated nutmeg, 
the juice of a lemon, a teaspoonful of chopped green tarragon, 
and pepper and salt to suit your own taste ; toss over a quick 
fire until the herbs are thoroughly tender (this can be ascer- 
tained by tasting), then add the beans, simmer for five 
minutes longer, and serve piled high in the centre of a hot 
dish and garnished with fleurons of pastry. 

139. Jerusalem Artichokes with Cheese.— 3 arti- 

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chokes, seasonings, Parmesan cheese, breadcrumbs, butter. 
Boil three good-sized artichokes till quite tender, then beat up 
with a fork. Add pepper, salt, lemon-juice, and some cayenne 
pepper. Place a layer of this in a ramekin dish, then a little 
Parmesan cheese ; add a small quantity more of the artichoke 
mixture, scatter breadcrumbs and cheese over. Put some 
little pieces of butter over the top, bake for ten' minutes in a 
sharp oven, and serve very hot. 

140. Jerusalem Artichokes with Eggs. — Artichokes, 
half a lemon, hard-boiled eggs, parsley, pepper, salt, brown 
sauce, and milk and water. Pare carefully and throw into water 
the number of artichokes you wish to use, adding the juice of 
half a large lemon. Boil in salted milk and water till tender 
and sufficiently cooked. Drain well, and trim off each squarely 
at the end so that it will stand on a dish. Have ready some 
hard-boiled eggs divided in half lengthwise ; arrange these 
and the artichokes evenly down the centre of a dish in 
separate lines, the yolks of eggs showing upwards. Scatter 
chopped parsley over the artichokes, pepper and salt over all. 
Pour a nice brown sauce round, and serve very hot. 

141. Lentil Rissole9. — £ lb. whole lentils (cooked), £ oz. 
butter, seasoning, pastry, egg and breadcrumb, f rying-oil. The 
lentils should be baked or boiled until soft enough to mash, 
then add the butter, pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg to taste. 
Roll the pastry very thin, and cut it into rounds with a tea-cup 
or pastry-cutter ; on each round place a spoonful of the 
mixture, wet the edge, fold and press together ; cover with 
egg and breadcrumbs and fry in boiling oil. Serve hot with 
fried parsley. 

142. Lettuce with Plasmon. — 3 lettuces, 1 teaspoonful 
Plasmon, 1 Oz. butter, seasoning, fried croutes of Plasmon 
bread. Cook the lettuce with a little water and butter till it 
is tender ; drain it well and pass it through a sieve ; reheat 
with some butter, seasoning, and Plasmon. Serve very hot, 
heaped upon the croutes. Garnish with hard-boiled yolk of 
egg, and croutons of fried bread. 

143. Mushrooms. — In gathering mushrooms avoid those 
which grow in woods ; these are often of a poisonous nature, 
whereas those on meadow land are generally good for food if 
young and fresh ; the popular common mushroom found on 
pasture land and downland varies in size from one to five 

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inches, the top is smooth and of a tawny cream colour, when 
young the gills are of a pink hue, but they grow darker with 
age. An authority on fungi states that any fungus, the stem 
of which is set in a socket, may at once be declared poisonous. 
A wholesome form of mushroom flavouring is that of ketchup. 
Mushrooms may also be dried in dishes over very slow heat, 
and kept in tins for winter stews ; they require soaking and 
long cooking, but are then almost equal to fresh. 

144. Mushroom Cream. — Jib. brown mushrooms, 2 oz. 
butter, pepper, salt, 1 tablespoonful of Plasmon stock, 1 gill 
cream. Stew the mushrooms in butter till tender ; then stir 
in the cream, Plasmon, and seasoning, and cook four minutes ; 
put all through a coarse hair sieve, make hot again. Spread 
on small squares of buttered toast, and serve. 

145. Mushroom Pie. — Mushrooms, breadcrumbs, butter, 
seasonings, pastry, cream. Butter a pie-dish and then line it 
with short paste, rolled very thin. Scatter breadcrumbs over 
the bottom of the dish, then a deep layer of mushrooms, 
which have been peeled and cut in half. Season them with 
pepper, salt, and a little piece of butter, and over all put a 
half -inch layer of breadcrumbs. Cover with pastry, like any 
other pie, make a hole in the centre of the crust, and bake in 
a quick oven. While the pie is cooking, stew the mushroom 
stalks in a little water, with pepper and salt to flavour. Strain, 
thicken with flour, add two tablespoonfuls of cream, and 
pour through a funnel into the centre of the pie when it 
comes from the oven. Serve hot. 

146. Mushroom Pudding. — 1 lb. flour, 6 02. butter, i£ 
teaspoonful baking-powder, 1 qt. mushrooms picked and 
peeled, pepper and salt. Mix the baking-powder and flour, 
rub in five ounces of the butter, and make into a paste with 
a little cold water ; line a pudding basin with it, fill up with 
the mushrooms, seasoning them with the remainder of the 
butter (cut into small pieces), then pepper and salt, and a 
slight dredging of flour. Cover with paste, moisten and 
press the edges together, tie over with a cloth and boil for 
an hour and a half. Take off the cloth, turn out, and serve 
hot. 

147. Mushroom Toast. — Mushrooms, butter, pepper, 
salt, toast. Fry some mushrooms in butter with a sprinkling 
of pepper and salt. Have some slices of hot buttered toast 

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ready, and as soon as the mushrooms are done, lay them on 
the toast and send to table at once. 

148. Mushrooms 4 la Creole. — Mushrooms, olive oil 
or butter, breadcrumbs, herbs, and seasonings. Put four 
large tablespoonf uls of olive oil or hot butter in a baking-dish. 
Sprinkle with stale breadcrumbs, finely-chopped parsley, and 
sweet herbs. Lay on large peeled and stemmed mushrooms, 
pour over more oil, cover with breadcrumbs and seasoning. 
Set in a hot oven and bake twenty minutes. 

149. Mushrooms, Devilled. — From 10 to 20 mushrooms, 
dissolved butter, pepper, nutmeg, croutons. Take ten or 
twenty mushrooms of large size, peel off the outer skin care- 
fully, and cut off half the stalk. Then dip the mushrooms 
into melted butter, sprinkle pepper and a suspicion of nutmeg 
over them, and broil them on a gridiron over a clear, red fire. 
Have ready some small rounds of hot buttered toast, put one 
or two mushrooms on each, garnish with a tiny piece of 
parsley, and serve immediately. Mushrooms, perhaps more 
than any other vegetables, are spoiled if not served very hot. 

150. Mushrooms in Cases. — 12 large mushrooms, 1 oz. 
butter, a finely-chopped shallot, a teaspoonful of chopped 
parsley, pepper, salt. Peel and cut the mushrooms small, put 
them into well-buttered paper or china cases, add salt, 
pepper, chopped parsley and shallot. Cook in a brisk oven 
and serve very hot. 

151. Mushrooms with Cream. — £ lb. mushrooms, 1 oz. 
butter, 1 oz. flour, 2 tablespoonf uls cream, seasonings. Take 
half a' pound of mushrooms, and after peeling them, cook 
them very gently with a little water, salt, and pepper. When 
tender, pour off the liquid, which will be required for the 
sauce. Melt in a pan the butter, and add to it the flour, stir 
until well mixed, but do not let it get brown; then by 
degrees add the liquid from the mushrooms and the cream. 
When all is well mixed, add the mushrooms, make hot, pour 
on to squares of hot buttered toast, and serve. 

152. Potato Balls (Parmesan). — Some mashed potato, 
seasonings of pepper, salt, and chopped parsley, 1 egg, a 
tablespoonf ul of milk, grated Parmesan cheese and bread- 
crumbs, frying-oil. Take some very smooth mashed potato, 
season it with pepper, salt, and parsley. Beat an egg with 
the milk, and with it moisten the potato enough to form it 

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into cakes of any shape desired. Mix breadcrumbs and 
grated Parmesan cheese together. Roll the potato in this, 
and drop into boiling oil, and fry to" a light brown colour. 
Serve very quickly with dry cheese scattered over. 

153. Potato Balls Saut6s.— 1 lb. peeled potatoes, 2 or 3 
oz. butter, salt. With a scoop cut the potatoes into balls, put 
the butter into a saute-pan; when hot, lay in the potatoes, 
cover the pan and let the potatoes cook, gently shaking them 
occasionally. When nearly done, remove the cover and toss 
them till brown ; drain, sprinkle with salt, and serve. 

154. Potato Cassolettes with Eggs. — 3 large kidney 
potatoes, 1 lb. spinach puree, pepper and salt, grated cheese, 
6 small fresh eggs, i gill cream, £ oz. butter, breadcrumbs. 
Wash and dry the potatoes, bake them in their skins in ahot 
oven ; when done, cut each in half across the centre length- 
ways. Scoop out the mealy portion, rub the latter through a 
sieve, mix with the cream, and season with pepper and salt. 
Prepare the spinach, and flavour nicely. Line the inside of 
each half of potato with spinach. Poach the eggs separately, 
trim, and place one in each potato shell, fill up with the pre- 
pared potato puree, smooth over with a knife. Sprinkle with 
breadcrumbs and grated cheese, put a tiny piece of butter 
here and there on top of each. Finish in a very brisk oven 
or under the salamander to brown the surface. Dish up, 
garnish with sprigs of parsley, and serve. 

155. Potato Chowder. — 6 large potatoes, 2 onions, 2 
qts. of milk, butter for frying, seasoning. Pare the 
potatoes, cut into dice shapes and put into iced water till 
required. Fry the finely-minced onions in plenty of butter, 
cover lightly while they simmer till nearly done ; then put in 
the potatoes, with just enough water to boil them, and add 
plenty of seasoning. When the potatoes are cooked, pour in 
the milk, and when hot, serve. Be careful that the potatoes 
keep their dice shape. 

156. Potato Croquettes (1).— 2 lb. cold potatoes, 1 oz, 
butter, frying-oil, 2 eggs, breadcrumbs, pepper, salt and 
nutmeg. Pass the potatoes through a wire sieve, put them into 
a clean stewpan with one egg well beaten, an ounce of butter, 
a little grated nutmeg, pepper and salt. Beat the mixture 
over a moderate fire until it is thoroughly hot, then spread it 
on a dish and let cool. Make some balls or cork shapes on a 

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floured board, dip them in beaten egg, then in breadcrumbs, 
and drop them into hot fat until of a light brown colour. 
Arrange on a hot dish and garnish with parsley. A little milk 
or cream may be added to the mixture before it is heated. 

157. Potato Croquettes (2). — 8 or 10 potatoes (not new), 
2 eggs, 1 heaped tablespoonful Plasmon, 2 oz. butter, 1 tea- 
spoonful flour, 1 saltspoonful salt, some fine cracker crumbs. 
Boil the potatoes in their skins, peel and grate them, or pass 
them through a Victoria nut mill ; beat the butter to a cream, 
add the eggs, flour, salt, and Plasmon gradually, beating the 
mixture all the time. Form into croquettes about three 
inches long, brush with egg, and boil in oil at a temperature 
of 380 deg. 

158. Potato Flakes or Saratoga Potatoes.— Wash 
and peel thinly six large potatoes, cut them in very thin 
slices, and put them in plenty of cold water. Let them 
stand for several hours (overnight if possible) on the ice, 
or in a cool place. Pour off the water and drain the potatoes, 
return to the basin, and cover again with cold water, add also 
a large piece of ice. Heat some frying oil, drain the potato 
slices carefully, put about one-third of the quantity in a 
frying basket, and fry a pale brown colour. Shake the 
basket several times during the frying process. When done, 
drain thoroughly, and turn them on a large dish lined with 
soft brown paper. Then proceed to fry the remainder of 
the potatoes in exactly the same manner. To serve, sprinkle 
over with a little very fine salt. Every care must be taken in 
the following essential points, otherwise the dish will not be 
a success : Cut the slices very thin and evenly. The oil must 
be smoking hot before they are plunged in it, and must be 
kept boiling all the time. Potatoes thus fried and carefully 
drained will keep good for a long time if kept in a covered 
tin lined with paper. They are often eaten cold as well as 
hot, and are highly appreciated in the United States. 

159. Potato Fritters. — Boil six good-sized potatoes, mash 
and rub through a sieve, mix with half a pint of milk, a little 
cream, three yolks of eggs, a handful of breadcrumbs, a 
tablespoonful of grated Cheddar cheese, a little flour, a small 
piece of butter, and season with salt, pepper, and grated 
nutmeg. Stir well. Drop from the spoon, and fry in clarified 
butter to a rich brown colour. Drain on a cloth, or shake 

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well in a f rying-basket. Dish up on paper or napkin, garnish 
with crisped parsley, and serve. 

160. Potato Scones. — i lb. mashed mealy potatoes, i salt- 
spoonful of salt, i egg, 6 oz. flour (sifted), 2 oz. butter, 1 
teaspoonf ul baking-powder, about 1 gill milk. Rub the butter 
into the flour, add the salt and the baking-powder. Mix this 
thoroughly with the mashed potatoes. Beat up the egg with 
a little milk, add it to the above, and work into a dough, using 
the needful quantity of milk. Roll out on a floured board 
about half an inch in thickness, stamp out some rounds two 
to two and a half inches in diameter. Place them on a 
buttered baking-tin, brush over with milk, and bake in a quick 
oven for about fifteen minutes. These scones are best eaten 
hot (buttered), but are frequently served cold. When stale, 
split them, toast and butter them. 

161. Potato Souffle. — 6 potatoes, 1 oz. butter, 3 oz. 
potatoes mashed through a sieve, 2 yolks and 3 whites of 
eggs, flavouring of grated Parmesan cheese, pepper, salt, and 
cayenne. Bake the potatoes, cut them in two, empty the 
skins without breaking them, as they must be kept for the 
souffle cases ; put three ounces of the cooked potato through 
a wire sieve. Melt the butter in a small stewpan, stir in the 
potato, flavour it with about one ounce of Parmesan cheese, 
pepper, salt, and cayenne ; take it off the fire, beat in the 
yolks, whip the whites to a stiff froth and add them lightly ; 
nearly fill the cases, bake in a quick oven, Serve immediately 
on a dish-paper. 

162. Potatoes k la Creme. — Cut some boiled new potatoes 
into slices, put them into a stewpan with half a pint of good 
white sauce, half a gill of cream, pepper and salt, and a blade 
of mace ; simmer for fifteen minutes, and serve on a hot 
silver dish. 

163. Potatoes k la Maitre d'Hdtel.— Cold boiled 
potatoes, chopped parsley, seasonings, a little milk and 
butter. Cut some cold boiled potatoes into slices and put 
them in a saucepan with a little chopped parsley, salt, and 
pepper, a few drops of lemon-juice, and ten drops of tarragon 
vinegar. Pour over enough milk to cover them, and add a 
small piece of butter. Cover the pan and shake it gently 
over the fire until the contents are quite hot. Serve at once 
with finely-chopped parsley scattered over the top. The pan 

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should be shaken gently, so as not to break the slices of 
potato more than can be helped. 

164. Potatoes, Lyonnaise.-— Cold boiled potatoes, 2 small 
onions, 3 oz. butter, 1 tablespoonful minced parsley, salt, pepper* 
and juice of i a lemon. Heat the butter in a frying-pan, slice 
the onions into it, add some cold boiled potatoes sliced, and 
lightly toss them in the butter until they and the onions are 
of a nice brown colour, then add the parsley, pepper, salt, and 
lemon- juice, mix well together, and serve hot. 

165. Potatoes, Savoury, with Cheese.— 1 lb. boiled 
potatoes, 1 teaspoonful each very finely-minced chives and 
parsley, grated cheese, a little milk and butter, seasonings. 
Mash some boiled potatoes, mix them with the chives, parsley, 
salt, pepper, grated nutmeg, and a little oiled butter and milk ; 
make the mixture into a flattened mound on a buttered dish, 
sprinkle with grated cheese, then with breadcrumbs, place 
some little pieces of butter on it, and brown in the oven. 

166. Potatoes, Scalloped. — These form a very savoury 
dish for supper. Pare and slice a dozen large-sized potatoes 
and parboil them. Place a layer in the bottom of a pie-dish, 
spread over with a layer of stale breadcrumbs, bits of butter, 
and chopped parsley. Dredge with salt, pepper, and a little 
mace ; continue this in layers till the dish is full, then pour 
over all half a pint of milk. Bake for thirty-five minutes, when 
the top should be well browned, and the whole cooked till soft. 

167. Sausages Maigres. — Mix together half a pound of 
brown breadcrumbs, two ounces and a half of soaked and 
boiled tapioca, a hard-boiled egg chopped fine, a teaspoonful 
of mixed herbs, half a teaspoonful of salt and pepper, a sus- 
picion of mustard, and a little mixed spice. Mix a beaten 
egg with these ingredients, and then form the whole into 
sausage-shaped pieces. Flour thickly all over, and set in a 
cool place till required for frying. Fry in boiling oil, using a 
wire basket, and dry on thick paper. 

168. Saut6 Potatoes.— Slice as thinly as possible about 
eight cold potatoes of medium size. Melt one and a half ounces 
butter in a frying-pan or omelet-pan, put in the potatoes, 
season with pepper and salt. Cook over a quick fire for five 
minutes, tossing very frequently ; put them on one side of the 
pan, so as to give it the shape of an omelet. Allow them to 
colour nicely, then turn out on a hot dish and serve. 

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Entrees and Savouries 

169. Savoury Vegetables.— i lb. cooked spinach, J pi 
Plasmon sauce, a little cheese, 6 eggs. Take half a pound of 
spinach, cooked, and pass through the sieve ; cover with 
Plasmon sauce mixed with cheese. Serve in little cases with 
a poached egg on top. 

170. Seakale, Florentine Style. — Bundle seakale, lemon- 
juice, toasted bread, Bechamel sauce, grated cheese, season- 
ing. Trim and wash a bundle of seakale, cook it in plenty of 
salted water and the juice of one lemon. When done, take 
up and drain on a sieve. Put a slice of toasted bread on a 
dish, arrange the cooked seakale neatly upon this, mask over 
carefully with a layer of well-reduced Bechamel sauce, sprinkle 
over some grated cheese (equal quantities of Parmesan and 
Gruyere), season with white pepper and a pinch or two of 
paprika and cayenne. Pour over a few drops of melted 
butter, and dredge lightly with some breadcrumbs. Place 
the dish in a very hot oven long enough to brown the top. 
Serve at once. 

171. Spinach Crootes. — 6 oz. flour, 1 oz. grated cheese, 1 
hard-boiled egg, 6 tablespoonf uls cooked spinach, 3 oz. butter, 
1 yolk of egg, 1 tablespoonful cream, salt and pepper, paprika. 
Rub the butter and flour together until quite fine, then add 
the cheese and a tiny pinch of salt. Moisten with a raw yolk 
and a little milk to form a smooth paste. Roll out on a floured 
board about one-eighth of an inch thick. Stamp out some 
rounds two to two and a half inches in diameter, place them 
on a buttered baking-tin, and bake in a slow oven for fifteen 
minutes. Mix the spinach with the cream, season to taste 
with pepper and salt, heat, and put in a forcing-bag with a 
plain pipe. Force out a layer of spinach on the cheese 
croutes, allowing a narrow edge of the pastry to show all 
round. Cut the hard boiled egg into slices, remove the yolk, 
place a ring of white of egg on each croute. Mix the yolk 
with a little butter, force a rose shape of this in the centre of 
the spinach. Sprinkle over with paprika, reheat in a brisk 
oven for a few seconds only, dish up, and serve quickly. 

172. Stewed Mushrooms.— A bottle or tin of mush- 
rooms, milk and water, pepper and salt, a tablespoonful of 
cream. Well wash and wipe all the brine off the mushrooms, 
put them into a saucepan with a tablespoonful of milk and 
half a tablespoonful of water, a little white pepper and salt ; 

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cover closely and let the contents simmer without quite 
boiling for three-quarters of an hour ; add the cream before 
serving. 

173. Stewed Red Cabbage.— Having well washed the 
cabbage, shred it as if for pickling, and put it in a saucepan 
with sufficient cold water to cover it. Parboil it, strain off 
nearly all the water, and add to the cabbage four or five 
apples, pared, cored, and quartered, about an ounce of 
butter, a little salt and pepper, and a few cloves. Stew 
all together till tender, then strain and add to the liquor a 
thickening of butter and flour, a teaspoonf ul or two of vinegar 
according to taste. Return the cabbage to the saucepan to 
heat through again, and serve very hot. 

174. Stuffed Tomatoes. — 4 or 6 tomatoes, 2 ozs. grated 
cheese, 2 teaspoonf uls Plasmon, £ teaspoonf ul of salt, little 
pepper, 1 egg. Cut the centres out of the tomatoes ; mix all 
the ingredients together, fill in the tomatoes with the mixture, 
piling high. Bake in a moderate oven for ten minutes. 

175. Tinned Mushrooms. — These may be used with 
safety, as the greatest care is always taken in their pre- 
paration, both in cleansing them before the process, in 
boiling, and in inspecting them after it, all doubtful ones 
being removed. The button mushrooms are the best; they 
are used as an addition to pies, sauces, puddings, &c, their 
flavour amalgamating with and improving all sorts of made 
dishes. They should always be washed before use, to remove 
the brine in which they are preserved. 

176. Tomatoes k TAmericaine.— 6 to 8 tomatoes, 
mayonnaise sauce, celery, pineapple, lettuce-leaves. Choose 
six to eight even-sized ripe, but firm tomatoes, hollow out 
as much as possible of the soft centre portion of the tomatoes ; 
remove the seeds, and mix the pulp with an equal quantity of 
stiff mayonnaise. To this add finely-chopped celery and pine- 
apple in equal parts. Fill the tomatoes with this mixture, and 
place them in the ice-box for at least two hours. To serve, put 
each tomato on a lettuce-leaf, dress neatly on a silver-plated 
entree or glass dish, and garnish with watercress and radishes 
— the latter should be so arranged as to form a wreath round 
the dish, with the tomatoes in the centre. 

177. Tomatoes in Batter (or Vegetable Toad-in-* 
the-Hole).-— 6 nice tomatoes, 2 tablespoonfuls of breads 

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crumbs, i tablespoonful of chopped parsley, 3 eggs, 1 pt. 
milk, 1 tablespoonful butter (oiled), ± teaspoonful lemon 
thyme and grated lemon, £ teaspoonful nutmeg and mace, 
salt and pepper, and £ lb. flour. Make a batter of the pint 
of milk, half a pound of flour and two eggs, salt to taste. 
Let it stand while the tomatoes are prepared thus : Pour over 
them boiling water to loosen the skin. Remove it and make 
a cavity in the middle of the fruit by taking out a little of the 
pulp. Mix the breadcrumbs, parsley, thyme, butter, spice 
and seasoning in a bowl. Moisten with beaten egg and 
tomato pulp. Stuff the tomatoes with this and place on a 
very liberally greased Yorkshire pudding tin, pour the batter 
over, and bake in a good oven from three-quarters to one 
hour. Cut into neat squares, and serve very hot. A little 
grated cheese may be sprinkled over the batter before serving, 
if liked. 

178. Tomatoes, Scalloped. — 6 large tomatoes, 1 small 
onion, butter, breadcrumbs, seasoning. Peel and cut in 
pieces six large, ripe tomatoes and one small onion. Butter 
a baking-tin or dish, and arrange a thin layer of bread- 
crumbs in it, then a layer of tomatoes, onion, pepper and 
salt, and some pieces of butter, then another layer of bread- 
crumbs, and so on till the dish is full, having breadcrumbs 
on the top. Bake for half an hour in a quick oven. 

179. Tomato Fritters. — 4 small, ripe, but firm tomatoes, 
i a lemon, 1 teaspoonful chopped parsley, pepper and salt, 
1 tablespoonful salad oil, frying batter and oil. Remove the 
stalks from the tomatoes, wipe them, and cut crossways into 
thick slices. Each tomato should make about three nice 
slices. Put these in a deep dish, season lightly with pepper 
and salt, sprinkle over the parsley, oil, and lemon- juice. 
Prepare a batter with four ounces of flour, one tablespoonful 
of oil, a pinch of salt, one egg, and a little tepid water. Beat 
the white of the egg to a stiff froth, and add last of all. 
Allow the batter to stand awhile. Drop each piece of tomato 
into the batter so as to coat it completely, take out with a 
skewer or fork, drop into the hot oil, fry a golden colour, 
drain on paper or cloth, dish up and serve hot. 

180. Tomato Souffles. — 1 gill tomato puree or pulp, 
1 tablespoonful cream, 1 oz. butter, £ oz. grated cheese, salt 
and pepper, 1 saltspoonful powdered thyme, 1 oz. flour, 2 eggs. 

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Put the tomato puree in a small stewpan, add the thyme and 
butter, and let it come to the boil. Mix the flour with the 
cream, and stir into the tomato puree. Stir with a wooden 
spoon over the fire for five minutes, then add the cheese and 
let cool a little. Season with pepper and salt, and work in 
one by one the yolks of two eggs. Whisk the whites of eggs 
to a stiff froth ; mingle carefully with the mixture. Three 
parts fill eight or nine small paper cases, bake them in a hot 
oven for about ten minutes. Dish up tastef ully, and send to 
table quickly. 

z8z. Tomato Toast. — i oz. butter, 3 fine tomatoes, 
2 eggs, pepper and salt. Skin and slice the tomatoes, fry them 
in the butter, add the eggs, pepper and salt, stir slowly and 
lightly until they begin to thicken, then serve on buttered toast. 

z82. Turnips k la Cr6me. — Boil half a dozen turnips in 
a pint of milk till they are thoroughly cooked and have 
absorbed every drop of moisture. Great care must be taken 
that they do not burn. Then pass them through a hair sieve. 
Put half an ounce of butter in a stewpan with a teaspoonful 
of white pepper, a little salt, and a good pinch of nutmeg. 
Do not let the butter acquire any colour. As soon as it 
"oils" add the turnips, stir rapidly for five minutes over a 
brisk fire, then add the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, a 
teaspoonful of cream, and a pinch of sifted sugar. Make very 
hot and send to table piled as high as possible on a dish, and 
garnish with a border of fried croutons. Where economy 
has to be greatly studied the eggs and cream may be omitted, 
and half a gill of milk used instead. In this case, boil up 
again for ten instead of five minutes, and add a squeeze of 
lemon- juice. , Water may be also used in place of milk when 
boiling the turnips. 

Z83. Turnips au Gratin. — Fully grown turnips, season- 
ing of pepper, salt, butter, grated cheese, shallot. Pare 
some turnips, cut them in half to see if they are good, and 
boil them in salted water ; when tender, drain and pass 
through a hair sieve. Put the pulp into a saucepan, with a 
piece of butter, pepper, salt, and two or three tablespoonfuls 
of grated Parmesan cheese. Stir all well together, and heap 
the puree on a buttered dish, previously rubbed with a shallot* 
Sprinkle the surface with grated cheese, and brown in a 
hot oven. 

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184. Vegetable Marrow Rings.— A young vegetable 
marrow, egg and breadcrumbs or frying-batter, poached 
eggs. Take a young, small vegetable marrow and cut it into 
rings about half an inch thick. Pare the rind off each ring 
thinly and evenly, and stamp out the seeds with a round 
cutter. Dip each ring into flour, then into egg and bread- 
crumbs, and fry them a golden brown. They are also very 
good dipped into frying-batter, thus making fritters, or they 
may be fried after simply flouring, and served with a 
poached egg in the centre of each ring. 

185. Vegetable Marrow, Savoury .—A marrow, 2 oz. 
butter, 2 oz. cheese, garlic, pepper, salt, nutmeg. Peel and 
quarter a marrow and prepare as in the preceding recipe, 
taking out all the seeds, and cut into nice-sized pieces. Rub 
a frying-pan over with garlic, and melt two ounces of butter 
in it. Toss the pieces of marrow in the butter till tender, 
add salt, pepper, and a little grated nutmeg, and, just at the 
last, sprinkle in two ounces of grated cheese. Turn the 
marrow on to a hot dish, garnish with croutons of fried bread, 
and serve while quite hot. 

186. Vegetable Pie. — 2 oz. butter, 2 sliced onions, head 
of celery, equal quantities of boiled haricot beans, carrots, 
and turnips, pepper, salt, and parsley. Dissolve the butter in 
a saucepan, add the vegetables, cover and let them cook until 
tender ; season to taste, and add a teaspoonful of finely- 
chopped parsley ; put into a pie-dish, let get cool, cover with 
light pastry, and bake. Serve with rich brown sauce. 

187. Vegetable Sandwiches. — There are many vege- 
tables, raw and cooked, that lend themselves admirably to the 
production of dainty sandwiches. Tomatoes, sliced or in 
pulp, asparagus-tips, cooked and seasoned with mayonnaise, 
finely shredded lettuce, all make convenient and excellent 
fillings for sandwiches. • A little sandwich, quite new and 
particularly chic, is made with thin slices of brown bread and 
finely-chopped olives and celery or lettuce. The bread slices 
are buttered with very fresh country butter, whilst the mix- 
ture which is laid on or spread between is seasoned or 
moistened with a little mayonnaise dressing. They are then 
pressed lightly, cut into convenient fancy shapes, and placed 
on the ice till wanted. The main thing about these and other 
vegetable sandwiches is to have them perfectly cool. A damp 

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muslin cloth spread over the dish containing the sandwiches 
will keep them cool, but the dish should, when possible, be 
placed direct on the ice. It is needless to add that a great 
deal of the success depends upon the way in which sand- 
wiches are dished up. 

188. Vegetables, Rechauffes of.— Cooked vegetables, 
especially those plain boiled, should never be wasted, for with 
a little management they will form delightful dishes, either as 
savouries, vegetable entremets, or additions to the breakfast 
table. Such vegetables as peas, cauliflower, French beans, 
Brussels sprouts and cabbage, &c, can all be tossed in butter, 
with pepper and salt, and served a la maitre d'hotel. Boiled 
potatoes are best served cut in slices and fried. Spinach is 
admirable when warmed up. Put it in a saucepan with a 
little butter and stir till quite hot, then spread lightly, to the 
thickness of a quarter of an inch, on to pieces of toast about 
three inches square. Place on each a poached egg neatly 
trimmed with a fluted cutter and serve at once. Cold boiled 
artichokes may thus be served with cheese : Melt one ounce 
of butter in a saucepan, add a dessertspoonful of flour, and 
when thoroughly mixed stir in by degrees rather more than 
half a pint of milk ; bring the sauce to the boil, add pepper 
and salt to taste, and two tablespoonf uls of grated Parmesan 
cheese. Butter a dish plentifully, and on it arrange the 
slices of artichokes in two or three layers, with some of the 
sauce between each. Sprinkle on the surface some pale 
brown breadcrumbs, and bake in a brisk oven till golden 
brown. This method applies equally well to cauliflower, 
seakale, vegetable marrow, &c, and if the quantity of the 
vegetable be small it would be better to make use of scallop 
shells. Any cold vegetables may be made into a delightful 
hot dish if laid in a nice curry sauce until impregnated with 
its flavours, then slowly warmed. 

189. Walnuts and Celery with Mayonnaise (a 
smart Supper Dish). — 1 gill mayonnaise, 1 head white 
celery, one blade mace, 1 slice onion, £ oz. sheet gelatine, salt, 
pepper, and paprika, 1 French gherkin, £ pt aspic jelly, £ pt. 
shelled walnuts, 1 bayleaf, i pt. tomato pulp, 1 teaspoonful 
tarragon vinegar, a few tarragon leaves, and chillies for , 
garnish. Mask a plain border mould (pint size) with a thin 
coating of aspic, decorate the side with fancifully cut chilli 

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and tarragon leaves. Mix half a gill of mayonnaise with 
enough liquid aspic jelly to make it set, and line the decorated 
mould with this. Put it in a cool place to set. Meanwhile 
put the walnuts in a stewpan, cover with boiling water and a 
little salt, the mace, bayleaf and onion, and boil for ten 
minutes or so. Drain, and put them in cold water, remove 
the skin, and shake them gently in a towel. Cut them into 
shreds. Dissolve the gelatine and add to the -tomato pulp, 
season with pepper, salt, and half a teaspoonful of paprika, 
flavour with the vinegar, boil up, and strain. When almost 
cold, mix with it about half the shredded walnuts. Fill the 
border mould with this preparation, and put the mould in a 
cool place until required. Wash and scrub the celery, rinse 
it well, and dry on a cloth. Remove all the green parts and 
cut the white part into julienne strips. Mix these in a basin 
with the remainder of the walnuts. Add pepper and salt to 
taste. When ready for serving, unmould the border and 
dress on a round dish. Season the salad with mayonnaise 
and place it in the centre of the dish. Pile up high, sprinkle 
with a little chopped gherkin, and serve. A little green salad 
lettuce or endive may be mixed with the celery and walnuts 
if liked. In that case it should be cut into shreds or else torn 
into very small pieces. Serve as a fancy salad or side dish. 



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FARINACEOUS AND 
CHEESE 

190. Baked Cheese Crumpets.— 3 or 4 small crumpets, 
1 oz. butter, 2 oz. cheese. Split and butter the crumpets. 
Mince the cheese, and sprinkle over the buttered sides of the 
crumpets, and put them into their original shape. Bake for 
about ten minutes in a hot oven, and serve at once. 

191. Baked Savoury Rice.— 4 tablespoonfuls rice, salt, 
pepper, 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce, i£ oz. butter, 
a few threads of saffron. Put the rice into plenty of boiling 
water with a little salt and boil till tender, then drain and 
leave it in the pan at the side of the fire for some minutes to 
dry a little. Now season it with salt and pepper, add tomato 
sauce, and the butter, in small pieces. Lightly smear a cake- 
tin with butter, put in the rice and bake for an hour. Turn 
out and serve very hot. A fresh tomato cut up small may be 
mixed in with the rice instead of the sauce. In the West 
Indies a few threads of saffron, dissolved in a tablespoonful 
of water, are added to the water in which the rice is boiled. 
The saffron gives a pale yellow colour and a nice flavour 
to the rice. 

192. Boiled Rice and Tomato Sauce. — A teacupful of 
Patna rice, salt, tomato sauce. Wash well a teacupful of rice. 
Sprinkle it into some boiling water with a little salt, and let it 
cook rapidly till tender. Exactly fifteen minutes is the correct 
time for Patna rice. Drain well, then leave it on the screen 
or by the side of the fire to dry for ten minutes or so, shaking 
the pan occasionally. Turn it out on a hot dish, and pour 
some very hot tomato sauce over it. Or the latter may be 
served separately. 

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Farinaceous and Cheese 

193. Bread and Cheese Fritters.— 2 oz. stale bread 
(crumby part), £ oz. butter, 2 yolks and 1 white of egg, 1 
whole egg (beaten), frying-oil, 1 gill milk, 4 oz. grated cheese 
(Gruyere or Parmesan), 1 saltspoonf ul oriental salt, panurette 
for crumbing. Cut the bread into dice, and put it in a basin, 
pour over the milk (made warm), and allow to soak for twenty 
minutes. Pour off some of the milk, add the cheese, and stir 
in the yolks of eggs. Put this into a stewpan with the butter, 
add the seasoning, and stir till the mixture is warm through. 
Allow it to cool a little, then add the white of one egg, 
whisked to a stiff froth ; mix gently, and form into even-sized 
balls. Dip them in beaten egg, cover well with panurette; 
when set, repeat the operation. Have ready some hot oil, fry 
the balls in this. Drain on paper or cloth, arrange upon a 
hot dish with a lace paper or folded napkin, and serve. 

194. Breakfast Muffins. — £ lb. flour (sifted), 1 tea- 
spoonful baking-powder, 2 eggs, % pt. milk, 1 saltspoonful 
salt, 1 oz. butter. Put the flour into a basin, make a well in 
the centre of the flour, add the salt and baking-powder. Beat 
up the eggs with the milk, and melt the butter. Pour the 
milk and eggs slowly into the flour and mix carefully, then 
add the butter, and beat up the whole vigorously for several 
minutes. Place six or eight muffin pans (buttered) on a 
baking-tin, fill these with the prepared batter, and bake in a 
fairly quick oven from fifteen to twenty minutes, or bake in 
iron hoops on a steel baking-tin over the fire, in the same way 
as muffins are usually baked. If liked, a little sugar (one to 
one and a half ounces) may be added to the batter. 

195. Cheese k la Pimpernell.— 3 oz. rich cheese (grated), 
2 tablespoonfuls of milk, $ oz. butter, 1 well-beaten egg, 
cayenne. Butter a fire-proof dish ; stir all the other ingre- 
dients together ; after soaking for an hour, pour the mixture 
into the dish and bake in a very moderate oven. Serve hot. 

196. Cheese Biscuits. — Jib. flour (sifted), ± lb. butter, 1 
yolk of egg, 6 oz. grated Parmesan or Gruyere cheese, J tea- 
spoonful paprika pepper. Mix the flour and cheese in a 
basin, rub in the butter, then add the pepper, and mix with 
the egg-yolk, and, if necessary, a few drops of water to form 
a smooth paste. Roll out on a floured board about a quarter 
of an inch in thickness. Stamp out some rounds or ovals, 
place them on a buttered baking-sheet, prick them with the 

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prongs Of a fork, and bake in a sharp oven for about ten 
minutes. 

197. Cheese Cream Fritters.-— 1 gill milk, 1 oz. butter, 

1 oz. grated Gruyere cheese, panurette or breadcrumbs, 
grated nutmeg, parsley, 1 shallot, 1 oz. flour, £ oz. Par- 
mesan, 2 eggs, cayenne pepper, clarified butter for frying. 
Boil the milk with the shallot (finely chopped). Fry the flour 
in the butter, just enough to cook it without browning. Stir 
in the milk, let it come to the boil whilst stirring, season with 
a pinch of cayenne and very little nutmeg, and cook slowly 
until it resembles a panade in consistency. Add the grated 
cheese. Bind the mixture with two yolks of eggs, and spread 
on a dish or baking-sheet (previously buttered) to cool. Stamp 
out some rounds by means of a paste-cutter, about one and a 
half inches in diameter. Beat up the whites of egg. Mix 
panurette or breadcrumbs with the Parmesan cheese (grated), 
egg and crumb ; when set, repeat the operation. Fry in 
clarified butter (this must be very hot). Drain, sprinkle 
with a good pinch of fine salt, dish up, garnish with fried 
parsley, and serve. 

198. Cheese Custard.— Place a layer of thin bread-and- 
butter in a shallow pie-dish, sprinkle over this any small 
pieces of dried cheese, and a seasoning of made mustard, salt, 
and cayenne. Repeat till the dish is full, and pour over a 
custard made of one or two eggs beaten up in a pint of 
milk. Bake in a very slow oven until quite set. Serve with 
an accompaniment of grated cheese on a separate small dish. 

199. Cheese Eclairs. — 2 oz. butter, 2 oz. flour, i pt. water, 

2 eggs, seasoning. Put the butter and water into a small 
stewpan, and when boiling stir the flour into it : cook for a 
few minutes, continually stirring ; then add the eggs, one by 
one, and season with cayenne and salt. Put the mixture into 
a paper cornet or piping-bag, and pipe it lengthwise about 
two inches and a half. Bake them in the oven for quarter of 
an hour, cut a slit down the middle of each, and fill them 
with any savoury cream of anchovies, haddock, cheese, 
chopped ham, tongue, herbs, &c. 

Cheese Cream (for above). — Into a gill of good thick white 
sauce stir two tablespoonfuls of grated cheese, and season 
with made mustard, salt, and cayenne. Make hot and use as 
directed. 

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200. Cheese Eggs en Caisses.— 4 eggs, 1 tablespoonful 
butter, 1 tablespoonful Parmesan cheese, 4 tablespoonfuls 
dried flour, cayenne, salt. Beat the eggs to a froth, add the 
butter beaten with the Parmesan cheese. Add salt and 
cayenne to taste ; then the dried flour. Beat all these 
together till quite creamy, then pour into buttered fancy fire- 
proof dishes and bake for half an hour. When half cooked, 
scatter grated cheese on the top of each. Serve very hot. 

201. Cheese Galettes. — k pint milk, 1 bayleaf , 8 oz. flour, 
salt, white pepper, and nutmeg, 1 gill water, 2 oz. butter, 
2 oz. grated Parmesan cheese, 2 yolks of eggs. Put the milk 
and water in a stewpan, add the bayleaf, and boil for a 
few minutes ; remove the bayleaf, and put in the butter. Sift 
the flour, and stir into the above whilst the former is boiling 
fast. Work vigorously with a wooden spoon until the sides 
and bottom of the pan are perfectly clean. Now add the 
seasoning (a pinch of salt, a good pinch of white pepper, and 
a tiny grate of nutmeg). Stir in half the cheese and one yolk of 
egg. Work over the fire a little longer, then spread on a dish, 
and put it on the ice for about an hour. Stamp out some 
rounds by means of a paste-cutter, place them on a well- 
buttered baking-sheet, prick them well with a fork, brush over 
with egg-yolk diluted with a little milk, sprinkle the surface 
with Parmesan cheese. Bake in a fairly brisk oven from ten 
to fifteen minutes, and serve hot as an after-dinner savoury. 
These galettes are also nice cold. 

202. Cheese Omelet.-— 4 eggs, grated cheese, 1 oz. butter, 
1 tablespoonful of milk, cayenne, salt, and white pepper. 
Beat the eggs, cheese, milk, and seasonings in a basin with a 
knife or fork while the butter is heating in the omelet pan ; as 
soon as it is very hot, pour in the mixture, stirring quickly until 
it begins to thicken, then form it into a kind of roll against the 
side of the pan, keeping it in shape with a spoon, turn it over 
and brown the other side, but do not overcook it, as the 
interior must be soft and creamy. Turn out on a hot 
dish and serve immediately, sprinkled with grated cheese. 

203. Cheese Pudding. — 2 eggs, 5 oz. cheese, i pt. boiling 
milk, seasoning. Beat the eggs, boil the milk, grate the 
cheese ; beat the ingredients well together, season to taste, 
pour into a greased pie-dish, bake for quarter of an hour. 
Turn out the pudding and send it to table on a serviette. 

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204. Cheese Sandwiches.— Brown bread and butter, 
grated cheese, salt, and cayenne. Cut some slices of brown 
bread and butter, and put on them a thick layer of grated 
cheese. Season with salt and cayenne, and then cover with 
another piece of bread and butter. Cut these into shapes and 
send them to table prettily arranged on a d'oyley. 

205. Cheese (Cold) Sand wiches.— 2 tablespoonf uls grated 
cheese, a little crisp celery or a few shelled and peeled wal- 
nuts, cayenne, one large tablespoonful double cream, bread 
and butter. Cut some thin slices of bread, and butter them 
slightly. Shred either celery or walnuts very finely, and mix 
this with the cheese, a pinch of cayenne, and the cream. 
Spread the buttered sides of the bread slices with this, place 
them together like sandwiches, cut them into pretty shapes — 
squares, oblongs, crescents, or stars. Dish up, garnish with 
sprigs of parsley, and serve. 

206. Cheese Souffle. — 2 oz. butter, 2 oz. flour, 2 oz. grated 
cheese, £ pt. milk, 2 yolks and 4 whites of eggs, made mustard, 
cayenne, and salt. Melt the butter in a small saucepan, stir in 
the flour, then add the milk and .stir till it is well boiled and 
thickened ; take it off the fire, add the cheese, pepper, salt, 
mustard, and the yolks of eggs, and when well beaten and 
mixed, add the whites whipped very stiffly. Pour into a pie- 
dish and bake for half an hour in a quick oven. Serve 
immediately. 

207. Cheese Straws. — 4 oz. flour (sifted), 3 oz. butter, 2 
tablespoonfuls cream, 4 oz. grated cheese, a pinch of cayenne. 
Mix the flour and cheese in a basin, rub in the butter, add the 
cayenne, and moisten with the cream ; work into a smooth 
paste. Roll out about a quarter of an inch thick; cut the 
paste into even-sized long narrow strips or fingers, place them 
on a buttered baking-tin, and bake in a fairly hot oven for 
eight or ten minutes. Tie up into small bundles with coloured 
ribbon, and serve hot or cold. 

208. Cheese Toasts. — 2 hard-boiled eggs, 1 oz. butter, 
2 oz. grated cheese, slices of toast. Pound the yolks of the 
eggs with the butter and cheese, add salt, cayenne, and 
mustard, cut the toast into four squares, spread the mixture 
thickly on them, and make them hot and brown in a 
quick oven. 

209. Croutons of Cheese.— -2 oz. grated cheese (Parmesan 

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and Cheddar in equal parts, if possible), i tablespoonful of 
cream, £ oz. oiled butter, cayenne and salt to taste, chopped 
parsley, hard boiled egg, 8 small round croutons. Fry some 
thin slices of bread, cut into rounds of equal size, and allow 
two to each person. Mix together the grated cheese (half 
Parmesan and half Cheddar, if possible), cream and liquefied 
butter, with cayenne and salt to taste. Put a tablespoonful of 
•this mixture between two croutons, press them together, 
scatter a little chopped parsley on each, and on it some grated 
yolk of egg. Make hot and serve. 

210. Fondu Soufflees. — i oz. potato flour, £ oz. fresh 
butter, i yolk and 2 whites of egg, £ pt. milk, 3 oz. grated 
Parmesan cheese, seasoning. Mix the potato flour with a little 
cold milk, then stir on to it the remainder of the milk (boiling) ; 
put in the butter, and stir the mixture with a wooden spoon 
over the fire until it thickens. Cool a little, then add one or 
two yolks of eggs, the grated cheese, and seasoning (salt, 
pepper, nutmeg or cayenne). Beat the whites of eggs to a stiff 
froth, and mingle carefully with the above. Put the mixture 
into a well-buttered silver-plated vegetable-dish, and bake 
from eight to ten minutes in a brisk oven. Serve immediately. 
The same mixture can be baked in little souffle cases instead 
of one large dish. 

' 211. Gherkin Toasts. — 8 gherkins, 2 eggs, 2 oz. grated 
cheese, 5 squares bread cut the size of the top of a claret 
glass, cayenne and salt to taste. Fry the bread, drain 
nicely, and let it get cold ; sprinkle with the cheese, chop the 
gherkins finely, cover half of each square with them, and 
cover the other half with the yolks of the hard-boiled eggs 
pressed through a wire sieve ; season the ingredients with 
cayenne and salt. 

212. Griddle Cakes. — £ lb. flour, 2 oz. butter, £ teaspoonful 
salt, £ lb. cornflour, 1 pt. milk, 3 eggs. Mix the two kinds of 
flour and rub through a sieve into a basin, add the salt, and 
rub in the butter with the tips of the fingers until quite 
smooth ; pour in gradually the milk, mix well, add the yolks- 
of eggs one at a time. Beat up thoroughly until a smooth 
batter is obtained. Allow it to stand for half an hour. Mean- 
while whisk the whites of eggs to a very stiff froth, and mix 
carefully into the batter. Proceed to bake the batter quickly 
on a hot griddle. 

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213. Hominy Cutlets. — k pt. tomato juice, 1 teaspoonful 
Plasmon, 1 tablespoonful hominy, 1 tablespoonful milk or 
cream, salt and pepper to taste, egg and breadcrumbs. Make 
stock with the juice and Plasmon, then add the hominy, 
pepper, salt, and milk. Allow it to simmer for three hours ; 
make into cutlets, toss in egg and breadcrumbs, and fry in 
hot oil or butter. 

214. Hot Cheese. — i lb. Cheshire or any soft rich cheese, 
the yolks of 4 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of cream, 1 oz. butter, 
made mustard, and salt. Scrape the cheese finely, mix it with 
all the other ingredients, put it into a saucepan and stir over 
the fire till the cheese is dissolved and the whole is hot. 
Serve in a hot-water dish at once. 

215. Macaroni k l'ltalienne.— Boil the macaroni as in 
the next recipe, and drain. Melt two ounces butter in a 
stewpan, put in the macaroni, fry a little, then add two 
ounces grated cheese, and not quite half a pint of well-flavoured 
tomato sauce. Allow to cook gently from twenty to thirty 
minutes ; stir occasionally. Season to taste, dish up, and 
serve hot. 

216. Macaroni au Gratin. — 4 oz. small macaroni (spag- 
hetti), 1 gill water, 1 dessertspoonful flour, 1 bayleaf, salt and 
pepper, 2 oz. butter, 2 oz. grated cheese, 1 gill milk, bread- 
crumbs, 1 slice of onion. Break the macaroni into short 
pieces, put them in a stewpan containing enough boiling 
water, slightly salted, to well cover the macaroni. Allow to 
boil fast for twenty minutes, drain, and cool them. Boil the 
water and milk, with a bayleaf and onion. Melt the butter in 
a stewpan, add the flour, and cook for a couple of minutes 
without browning. Now add the boiled milk, stir till it boils, 
put in the macaroni and the cheese, mix well, and season to 
taste with salt and pepper. Fill a well-buttered gratin or pie- 
dish with this preparation, sprinkle with breadcrumbs and 
grated cheese, put a few tiny bits of butter here and there on 
top, and bake in a moderate oven for fifteen minutes. Serve 
in the dish in which it was cooked. 

217. Macaroni Balls. — 3 oz. straight macaroni, 2 eggs, 
1 oz. grated cheese, vermicelli, frying-oil. Boil the macaroni 
in salted water, drain, cut small rings, put into the saucepan 
with one beaten egg and the cheese, season with pepper, salt, 
and made mustard, cook for a few minutes, then turn out on a 

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plate to get cold. Form into balls, brush over with egg, roll 
in crushed vermicelli, and fry a nice golden brown. 

218. Milk Roll Pie. — J lb. flour (sifted), i teaspoonful 
baking-powder, 2 oz. grated cheese, salt and pepper, i\ oz. 
butter, \ pt. milk, 2 eggs. To make the milk rolls, put the 
flour in a basin, add a pinch of salt, and rub in one and a 
half ounces of butter, until the mixture looks like oatmeal. 
Add the baking-powder, and moisten with enough milk to 
form a firm dough. Put the dough on to a floured board and 
knead a little, then divide into eight portions, shape each 
into a bun. Place them on a baking-sheet and bake for about 
twenty minutes. Split the buns, butter them well, lay them 
in a buttered pie-dish, sprinkle over with grated cheese, a little 
salt, a pinch of white pepper, and a pinch of cayenne pepper. 
Beat up the egg with the remainder of the milk, pour this into 
the pie-dish. Bake for about half an hour in a moderately 
heated oven, and send to table immediately. 

219. Nouilles au Gratin. — Prepare a stiff but smoothly 
kneaded paste with \ lb. flour, \ oz. butter, 3 yolks of eggs, 
and a pinch of salt. Allow the paste to stand for at least one 
hour ; then roll out as thinly as possible, fold the pieces rolled 
out, and cut the paste crossways into narrow strips about one- 
eighth of an inch wide. Loosen the strips (shake them up 
and dredge with a little flour). Put the nouilles into a pan of 
fast-boiling salted water, boil for about eight minutes, then 
drain, and let cool. Butter a gratin dish, spread over a little 
white sauce, then a layer of nouilles, sprinkle over some 
grated cheese and a few drops of oiled butter, cover with 
sauce, and continue this until the nouilles are used up. See 
that the last layer is well masked with white sauce. Sprinkle 
over with breadcrumbs, place a few tiny bits of butter here 
and there on top of the crumbs, and bake in a quick oven for 
ten minutes. The dish is then ready for serving. 

220. Oatmeal Cakes.— These ar.e easily made with a little 
care and practice, and are far superior to the machine-made 
cakes sold in tins. Put three or four handfuls of oatmeal in a 
bowl, add a small piece of salt butter the size of a walnut. 
Pour nearly boiling water over and mix with the hand till the 
meal is all moistened. It must not be made too wet. When 
thoroughly moulded, sprinkle a little dry meal over, turn it out 
pn the baking board, and mould out with the back of the 

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v y- ' 5 .-.v ~»H v* ^^ ^ 



Vegetarian Cookery 

fingers till a thin cake is formed. Then cut into quarters, and 
bake on a "girdle " till firm, when the cakes should be toasted 
before the fire. The " girdle " is a circular plate of iron with 
a handle across, which can be placed over an open stove or 
fireplace. Any ironmonger can easily make this. Care must 
be taken that the heat does not become excessive. A good 
way of testing the heat is to sprinkle a little flour on the girdle. 
When it browns the heat is sufficient. 

221. Oatmeal Porridge. — Boil a saucepanful of water, 
allowing three-quarters of a pint of water for each person. 
When the water boils, add sufficient salt, sprinkle in oatmeal, 
stirring carefully all the time with a wooden spoon. A table- 
spoonful of meal ought to be allowed to each cup of water. 
When the porridge has boiled the saucepan may be drawn to 
the side of the fire and the porridge allowed to simmer gently 
for twenty minutes or half an hour — not less ; the longer it 
boils the more digestible it is. When ready it should be poured 
into saucers or small plates, and eaten with cold milk, cream, 
or treacle. 

222. Oatmeal Pudding. — i lb. oatmeal, 2 tablespoonfuls 
of flour, a teaspoonful of salt. Mix the above ingredients 
overnight with sufficient cold water to moisten them well, 
next day stir, pour into a well-buttered basin, tie over with a 
cloth and boU for two hours. Turn out in a hot dish and 
serve with fresh butter and brown sugar as an accom- 
paniment. 

223. Plasmon Rice Cutlets.— 1 pt. water, 5 oz. ground 
rice, piece of butter size of a walnut, 4 oz. button mushrooms, 
2 shallots, 6 teaspoonf uls Plasmon, 1 egg t breadcrumbs, some 
plain boiled vegetables. Put into the stewpan five ounces of 
ground rice and one pint of water, stir over the fire till it boils, 
then draw to the side and let it cook for twenty minutes ; add 
a piece of butter the size of a walnut, and stir frequently to 
prevent it from burning. When the rice is sufficiently cooked, 
add four ounces of button mushrooms and two shallots 
(previously fried together in a little butter without discolour- 
ing), a dessertspoonful of tomato ketchup, a pinch of ground 
mace, and pepper and salt to taste; pound together in a 
mortar and pass through a coarse hair sieve. Next moisten 
two teaspoonfuls of Plasmon with a few teaspoonfuls of warm 
water and mix well with the other mixture ; form into cutlets, 

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dredge over with flour, then dip in a well-beaten egg and 
breadcrumbs and Plasmon powder ; fry in boiling fat to a 
nice golden colour. Dish en couronne on a border of mashed 
potatoes ; serve tomato sauce round, and pile in the centre 
any vegetables that are in season — peas, beans, or puree of 
spinach. 

224. Potato Cakes. — Take a sufficient number of cold 
boiled potatoes ; mash them well. Add pepper and salt to 
taste, a bit of butter about the size of a walnut, and a well- 
beaten egg. If the mixture is very stiff a little milk may be 
added. Form into small rounds, and bake in a moderately 
hot oven until of a light golden brown. If you handle them 
carefully these cakes may be split and buttered, and are then 
exceedingly good. For purposes of economy the egg may be 
omitted and milk only used. 

225. Potato or Griddle-cake Fritters. — | lb. raw 
potatoes, 2 eggs, salt and pepper, 2 oz. flour, 1 oz. butter, 
clarified butter for frying. Wash, peel, and finely grate the 
potatoes. Rub the butter into the flour, add a good pinch of 
salt and a pinch of pepper, work in the grated potatoes, and 
moisten with the yolks of two eggs. Whisk the whites of 
eggs to a stiff froth. Mix this with the above preparation. 
Shape into little balls about the size of pigeons' eggs, drop 
into hot fat and fry a golden colour, or flatten the ball shapes, 
and fry them on both sides in a saute-pan containing some 
clarified butter. Take up, drain well, dish up, and serve hot. 

226. Rice (Turkish fashion). — Very few cooks under- 
stand the art of boiling rice to perfection, but if the following 
directions are carefully carried out failure is well-nigh impos- 
sible : Wash the rice in half a dozen waters, and put about 
one pound to boil in three quarts of cold water, with a tea- 
spoonful of salt. Allow it to boil gently till the division in 
each grain can be plainly seen. Then drain it upon a hair 
sieve, run a pint of cold water over and through it, place it 
upon a napkin, and put the dish containing it in the bottom 
of a cool oven. Turn the rice occasionally with a fork to 
prevent the grains sticking. When perfectly dry, each grain 
should be quite separate. To cook rice in the Turkish 
fashion proceed as follows : Fry the boiled rice in a sauce- 
pan with an ounce of butter, a little cayenne, saffron powder, 
and salt. Throw in a handful of cleansed sultana raisins 

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previously fried in butter. Serve very hot, with Parmesan 
cheese. 

227. Rice (Curried).— A teacupful of rice, 1 onion, i£ oz. 
butter, a tablespoonful of curry powder, a gill of milk, salt. 
Wash a teacupful of rice well, leave it in cold water for an 
hour, and drain ; fry a minced onion in a little butter, then 
stir to it a tablespoonful of curry powder, add a little milk and 
water, mix well, then put in the drained rice with one pint of 
boiling water. Let all boil up at once, then draw the pan on 
one side and simmer its contents till the rice is tender. 

228. Rice Fritters. — A breakfastcupful of rice, 1 onion, 
butter, pepper, salt, chopped parsley, 1 egg, butter for frying, 
sauce. Boil a breakfastcupful of rice till tender in a little 
weak vegetable stock, drain it, and leave it on the side of the 
fire till some of the moisture has evaporated. Mince an onion 
and fry it a light brown in a little butter, mix it to the rice 
with salt, pepper, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a well- 
beaten egg. Have ready some hot butter, drop the rice into 
it from a tablespoon in small cakes, and fry a light colour. 
Serve with Tar tare or Hollandaise sauce. 

229. Savoury Biscuits. — 12 plain water biscuits, 3 oz. 
grated Parmesan cheese, 1 oz. butter, made mustard, cayenne, 
and salt. Thoroughly mix the grated cheese with the butter, 
mustard, and cayenne, and spread the mixture on one side of 
each biscuit. Place on a baking sheet, and bake for five 
minutes in a good hot oven. Serve at once with a good 
sprinkling of grated cheese. This is a very useful savoury. 

230. Savoury Crusts. — Cut a sufficient number of slices 
of bread from a very stale loaf, a tin loaf for preference. Cut 
off the crust, then cut each slice into four pieces. Dip each 
piece of bread for a moment into milk. Mix a tablespoonful 
of .finely-minced shallot or onion with a heaped teaspoonful of 
parsley and a beaten egg, add a little pepper, salt, and a 
dessertspoonful of breadcrumbs. Mix well together. Dip 
each crust into the mixture. Place some oil in a deep sauce- 
pan. Place it on the fire, and wait until a thin blue smoke 
rises from it. Then add the crusts, three at a time, and fry 
until they are of a light golden hue. Take them out with a 
fish slice, and drain them on clean kitchen paper. Dish upon 
a very hot dish, and send to table. 

231. Savoury Porridge. — This is much more appetising 

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than the ordinary porridge. Use one part oatmeal to two 
and a quarter parts of boiling salted water. Bring the water 
to the boil first, then throw in the oatmeal and stir for twenty 
minutes ; meanwhile place a bit of butter about the size of a 
small walnut in a clean frying-pan ; as soon as it melts add to 
it two large onions, peeled and thinly sliced. Fry till of a 
delicate golden brown. As soon as the porridge is ready, dish 
it up on a hot dish, and put it in the oven to dry a little. Then 
place the onions on top, and pour over the whole any fat which 
may remain from the frying. Dust with pepper, and serve 
at once. 

232. Toasted Cheese. — Slices of toast, cheese, mustard, 
pepper, and salt. Make some slices of toast ; cut as many thin 
slices of cheese as there are pieces of toast. Toast the cheese 
and lay it on the bread. Spread thinly with mustard, and 
sprinkle with pepper and salt. Serve very hot. 

233. Tomato Rice. — 4 oz. rice, 1 small bouquet garni, 
3 shallots, 1 gill tomato sauce, 1 oz. grated cheese, seasoning, 

1 small onion stuck with a clove, 2 oz. butter, 2 or 3 small 
firm but ripe tomatoes. Pick and wash the rice, blanch it in 
slightly salted water, then drain it in a stewpan with the 
onion, bouquet, and tomato sauce. Cook gently till tender. 
Remove the onion and bouquet garni. Peel and finely chop 
the shallots, fry them in half the butter to a pale brown 
colour, add this to the rice ; season with salt, cayenne, and a 
tiny pinch of ground mace. Mix in the cheese and keep 
hot. Cut the tomatoes into neat slices, fry them carefully 
in the remainder of butter, and season to taste. Dish up 
the rice on a hot "dish, garnish with the slices of tomato, 
and serve. 

234. Tomatoes with Cheese Sauce.— 4 tomatoes, 2 oz. 
butter, 1 oz. flour, i pt. milk, 2 oz. grated Parmesan cheese, 

2 yolks of eggs, salt, pepper, and a little mustard. Cut the 
tomatoes in half. Place them in a fire-proof dish. Prepare 
the sauce by melting the butter, adding the flour and then the 
milk. Cook till it thickens. Allow the sauce to boil five 
minutes. When slightly cool, mix in half the cheese and the 
yolks, season to taste, and pour carefully over the tomatoes ; 
sprinkle the remainder of the cheese on the top, and cook for 
about ten minutes in a quick oven. 

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235. Breakfast Eggs.— 6 hard-boiled eggs, £ gill milk, 
1 dessertspoonful flour, pepper, salt, and nutmeg, 1 gill cream, 
1 oz. butter, 1 teaspoonful chopped parsley, breadcrumbs. 
Peel and slice the eggs. Melt the butter in a stewpan, stir in 
the flour, cook a little, moisten with the cream and milk, and 
let boil for five minutes, stirring all the time. Stir in the 
parsley, season to taste, and keep hot* Fill a buttered pie- 
dish with alternate layers of egg slices* sauce, and bread- 
crumbs, and when full pour over a little white sauce. Cover 
with breadcrumbs, add a few tiny bits of butter on top, 
and bake for twenty minutes in a moderately heated oven. 
Serve hot. 

236. Buttered Eggs.— Cut a slice from a large loaf * toast 
it. Cut off the crust. Butter the slice of toast and cut it into 
four squares. Put half an ounce of butter in a frying-pan. 
While it is melting break two eggs into a basin, and beat 
them up quickly with a fork. Add a pinch of salt and a dash 
of pepper. Pour them into the batter, and stir well until the 
eggs are quite yellow and set. Put them on the squares of 
toast in four equal portions, and send to table at once. 

237* To Butter Eggs in the German Fashion.— Cook 
them as directed, but before adding them to the melted butter, 
add a teaspoonful of either minced shallot or onion, and cook 
all together. 

238* Egg Darioles, Princess Style.— 4 to 6 eggs, 2 ot. 
butter, preserved lax, salt and paprika pepper, toasted bread, 
1 oz* grated Parmesan cheese, a handful cooked asparagus 
points, tomato sauce. Butter four to six small dariole moulds, 
sprinkle with grated cheese and a few pinches of paprika 
pepper. Break an egg carefully into each mould, and season 
with pepper and salt. Place the moulds in a saute-pan con- 

&» 



Eggs 



taining enough hot water to reach half-way up the moulds, 
and cook on the stove or in the oven until the white of the 
eggs is set. Stamp out some rounds or ovals of toasted bread 
about the size of an egg, butter them well on one side, and 
lay a slice of lax on each. Toss the asparagus points in a 
little butter, season to taste, and put a layer on the buttered 
toasts. Turn out the moulds on top of the asparagus, dish up, 
garnish with sprigs of parsley, and serve with a sauce-boat of 
tomato sauce. 

239' Egg Pie. — Boil six eggs till very hard. Throw them 
into cold water and- take off the shells. Cut the eggs into 
slices and reserve on a plate. Mash some cold potatoes with 
a little butter, pepper, and salt, and a wineglassful of milk ; 
skim milk will do. Spread a layer of potato in the bottom of 
a small pie-dish. Have ready a sliced fried onion, drained 
free from the fat it was fried in. Spread a little of this on the 
potato, add some of the sliced egg and a little white sauce ; 
cold white sauce which hatf been left over will do excellently. 
Repeat the layers until the dish is full, and finish with a layer 
of potato. Scatter breadcrumbs thickly on top, put a few 
bits of butter here and there, and place in the oven until very 
hot, by which time the top of the pie should be of a delicate 
golden brown. Take out and serve. 

240. Egg Salad.— 6 hard boiled eggs, £ gill mayonnaise 
sauce, chopped parsley, red chillies, salt and pepper, i£ gills 
cream, 1 lettuce, beetroot, capers, 1 slice toasted bread. Peel 
the eggs and cut them crosswise into slices. Whip the cream 
till stiff, then add to it the mayonnaise, and a teaspoonf ul of 
chopped parsley. Wash and trim the lettuce. Place a round 
of toasted bread in a salad bowl, dress on this a layer of lettuce 
leaves, then a layer of mayonnaise, then a layer of slices of egg, 
and so on until the eggs and lettuce are used up. Season each 
layer to taste. Pile up high, sprinkle over with chopped parsley. 
Garnish tastefully with slices of beetroot, capers, and red chilli, 
and serve. 

241. Eggs and Asparagus.— 4 fresh eggs, 20 to 25 heads 
of cooked asparagus, 1 02. fresh butter, cayenne, buttered 
toast. Break the fresh eggs into a basin, add a pinch of salt 
and a pinch of pepper, and beat up well. Remove the soft 
part of the heads of cooked asparagus, cut them into small 
pieces and add to the eggs. Put this into a small stewpan 

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with the fresh butter, and stir over a good fire with a fork or 
spoon. When it commences to thicken pour it on squares of 
toasted and buttered bread placed on a hot dish, sprinkle a 
little cayenne or paprika on the top, and serve hot. 

242. Eggs in Cases.-— 6 eggs, i gill cream, 1 shallot, 1 oz. 
butter, 6 paper cases, 1 tablespoonful chopped parsley, 2 
tablespoonfuls breadcrumbs, 1 tablespoonful grated Parmesan 
cheese, pepper and salt, sweet oil. Oil the inside of paper 
cases and place them on a baking-tin in the oven for a few 
minutes. Peel the shallot and chop finely, fry a little in some 
oil, then drain, and put it equally divided into the cases. Mix 
the breadcrumbs, half the parsley, and Parmesan cheese, 
adding a little pepper. Put about a dessertspoonful of this 
and a tiny piece of butter in each of the cases. Carefully 
break an egg into each case, season with pepper and salt. 
Divide the cream equally, and pour over each egg. Sprinkle 
with a little Parmesan cheese, and bake in a moderate oven 
for about six minutes. Take out, colour the surface under a 
salamander or hot shovel, sprinkle lightly with chopped parsley, 
dish up on a folded napkin, and serve quickly. 

243. Eggs on Toast.— This is a very simple dish, in fact 
nothing more than baked eggs set in rounds or rings of toasted 
bread. The dish is often called "ox-eyes." Cut some slices 
of white or brown bread as you would for toast, toast them in 
front oifir over a clear fire to a nice brown colour. Stamp out as 
many rounds as are required, cut out the centre with a smaller 
cutter, so as to form rings of toast. Spread a little fresh butter 
over each ring, and place them on a well-buttered fireproof 
dish. Break an egg carefully into each ring of toast, season 
with a little salt and pepper, pour about a dessertspoonful of 
fresh cream round each egg. Put the dish in a slow oven until 
the wh ; te of egg begins to set. Send the dish to table as hot as 
possible. Great care must be taken that the eggs do not get 
overcooked, and above all that the yolks are not disturbed 
during the process of cooking. 

244. Poached Eggs with Spinach.— 4 fresh eggs, i£lb. 
spinach, 1 J oz. butter, salt, pepper and nutmeg, 1 slice toasted 
bread, iteaspoonful lemon- juice or white vinegar, 1 tablespoon- 
ful rich brown sauce. Pick and wash the spinach, put it in a 
copper stewpan with very little water, and cook for half an 
hour. Put it in a colander and drain well, squeezing out all the 

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water. Rub the spinach through a sieve. Melt the butter in 
a stewpan, put in the spinach puree, season with pepper, salt, 
and a pinch of grated nutmeg, moisten with the sauce and 
cook gently for twenty-five minutes or so. Have ready a flat 
stewpan with boiling water slightly salted ; add the vinegar 
and lemon- juice. Break each egg carefully into a cup and 
gently slide into the boiling water (great care must be taken 
that they do not scatter). Allow the eggs to cook until per- 
fectly set, but without letting the yolks get hard. Have the 
spinach dressed neatly on a hot dish, take up each egg by 
means of a slice or small skimmer ; trim it a little and place 
on the spinach. Garnish with sippets of toasted bread, and 
serve immediately. 

245. Poach Eggs, To.— Put a pint of boiling water in a 
saucepan, with a teaspoonful of vinegar. Let it boil ; break 
the eggs into a cup, one at a time, and add them to the water. 
Cook for three minutes. Take out gently with an egg-slice, 
and serve. If possible, use an egg-poacher, price 6£d. ; the 
eggs look neater and far more dainty. 

246. Savoury Eggs.— Take some hard-boiled eggs, mix 
some stale breadcrumbs, beaten egg, minced parsley and 
onion or shallot all well together. Add a little pepper and salt ; 
shell the eggs. Dip each egg into the mixture. Roll it round 
so that it may get well coated. Place a bit of butter, about 
the size of a large walnut, in a clean frying-pan. Directly it 
oils add the eggs, and fry until of a light golden brown hue. 
Take out and drain on clean kitchen paper. Dish upon a hot 
dish, and send to table at once. 

247. Savoury Egg Cream on Toast.— 1 oz. butter, 1 gill 
cream, 3 eggs, salt, pepper, and a pinch of cayenne, 3 or 4 
slices toasted bread, not quite 1 oz. flour, about i gill milk, 1 
teaspoonful chopped parsley and savoury herbs (tarragon and 
chervil). Melt the butter in the stewpan, add the flour, and 
let cook a little over the fire ; draw away from the fire, and 
add the cream and milk. Stir constantly until it thickens, let 
it simmer very slowly, taking care that it does not burn or 
curdle. Separate the whites from the yolks of eggs ; beat up 
the whites to a stiff froth. Mix the yolks with the sauce, 
season with salt, pepper, and cayenne. Stir in carefully, or 
rather fold in, the whisked whites just the same as the whites 
are folded in a cake mixture ; mix in at the same time the 

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parsley and savoury herbs. Have ready the toast cut into 
convenient slices, put the mixture heaped up on these, smooth 
over with the blade of a knife, bake in a hot oven until of a 
golden colour, and serve quickly. 

848. Scrambled Eggs.— 6 eggs, $ oz. butter, salt and 
pepper to taste, J gill cream, a slice of toasted bread. Break 
the eggs into a basin, add pepper and salt, beat with a fork 
until yolks and whites are thoroughly mixed. Put in a stewpan 
with the cream and butter, and stir over a brisk fire for a few 
minutes. As soon as the eggs begin to set, remove from the 
fire and dress in a pile on a hot dish, garnish with neatly cut 
pieces of toasted bread and a few sprigs of fresh parsley. 

249. Scrambled Eggs and Tomatoes. — 6 ripe or ± pt. 
tinned tomatoes, 1 oz. butter, 2 or 3 eggs, seasonings. Cook 
the tomatoes in the chafing-dish till soft, stir in the butter cut 
in small pieces, salt and pepper to taste, and two or three 
beaten eggs ; stir steadily until the mixture begins to thicken ; 
then stir over the double pan till the consistency of scrambled 
eggs ; serve at once, or the mixture will separate and toughen. 

250. Scrambled Eggs with Asparagus.— A teacupful 
asparagus tops, i£ oz. fresh butter, 2 slices toasted bread, 4 
eggs, i gill cream, salt, pepper, and a little grated nutmeg. 
Cut the asparagus tops in small pieces about half an inch long, 
cook them in salted water, containing a teaspoonful of moist 
sugar. When done, drain and heat them up in a small saute- 
pan, with a little clarified butter. Break and beat the eggs in 
a basin, add the cream, season with a pinch of salt, pepper and 
grated nutmeg. Put about an ounce of fresh butter in a small 
stewpan ; when melted, add the egg mixture, and stir continually 
with a wooden spoon over the fire. As soon as it begins to 
thicken, add the cooked asparagus points ; mix carefully, and 
dress on to neatly-trimmed pieces of toasted bread. Smooth 
the surface and surround with triangular pieces of fried or 
toasted bread. 



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OMELETS 

351. Omelets, Vegetable.— The basis of a vegetable 
omelet must always be a plain or sayoury omelet mixture, 
flavoured (if liked) with a faint suspicion of onion or shallot, 
A puree or saute of some kind of vegetable, such as spinach, 
tomato, mushrooms, &c, daintily prepared, is placed in the 
centre of the omelet before it is folded into its proper 
shape. Almost any kind of vegetable may thus be converted 
into an omelet, which usually takes the name of the vegetable 
so introduced. The following is the best way of making an 
omelet : Beat up the eggs, say five, in a basin, long enough 
to thoroughly amalgamate the yolks with the whites, and 
about a dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, half a 
teaspoonful of salt, and a saltspoonful of pepper; stir in a 
tablespoonful of cream or milk. Melt an ounce (good weight) 
of butter in an omelet-pan ; when hot, put in a teaspoonful 
of finely-chopped onion or shallot, fry this for a few seconds, 
but do not let it get brown, then pour in the egg mixture ; 
stir the whole over a brisk fire until it thickens, then spread 
the mixture on one side of the pan, and let it take colour ; 
next place the vegetable intended to be used—either a puree 
or vegetable saute — in the centre of the omelet ; fold in the 
sides so as to give the omelet the shape of a cushion. Allow 
it to brown for a few seconds, and turn out on to a hot dish ; 
a suitable sauce is poured round the base of the dish, and 
the omelet is ready for serving. Grated cheese, cooked 
rice, &c, are at times incorporated in judicious proportions 
with vegetable omelets, but this is a niatter of taste. There 
are many other varieties of vegetable omelets, but the best 
are made on the above principles. A nicely-dressed salad 
goes well with these omelets. 

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25a. Haricot Bean Savoury Omelet—Take a tea- 
cupful of beans, boil quite soft, rub them through a wire 
sieve, using a teacupful of milk to assist this process, then 
add twq tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, a tablespoonful of 
parsley, four well-beaten eggs, pepper and salt, and an ounce 
of clarified butter or sweet oil. Pour the mixture into a 
thickly-buttered pie-dish and bake, or melt some butter in a 
pan, and fry it in the ordinary mode for omelets. 

253. Leek Omelet. — 3 eggs, 1 tablespoonful grated cheese, 
2 leeks, well washed, trimmed, and stewed in brown sauce, 
1 oz. butter, salt and cayenne, 1 tablespoonful milk or cream. 
Break the eggs into a basin, add the cheese, sufficient salt 
and cayenne to taste, and the milk or cream. Beat well 
to amalgamate the yolks and whites of eggs and other 
ingredients. Cut the cooked leeks into slices, and keep hot 
in a small stewpan with just enough sauce to moisten.' Melt 
the butter in an omelet-pan ; when thoroughly warm (not 
too hot) pour in the egg mixture, and stir over a bright 
fire until the eggs begin to set. Shape quickly into the 
form of a cushion, place the stewed leeks in the centre, 
and fold in the ends. Allow the omelet to take colour, then 
turn out on a hot dish, pour a little brown sauce round the 
base of the dish, and serve quickly. 

254. Mushroom Omelet.— 1 pt. mushrooms, 2 oz. butter, 
i teacupful of milk, 1 teaspoonful of flour, salt and pepper, 
4 to 6 eggs, a few drops of lemon- juice. Peel the fresh 
mushrooms, put in a saucepan with an ounce of butter 
rolled in flour, half a teacup of sweet milk, with salt and 
pepper. Set on the fire and let simmer until the mushrooms 
are tender. Make a plain omelet with the beaten eggs and 
remainder of the butter, and pour in an omelet pan ; when 
it is ready to turn, pour half the mushroom mixture in the 
centre, fold over, turn, and dish ; sprinkle with lemon-juice. 
Pour the remaining mushrooms around the omelet, and 
serve hot. 

255. Omelette aux Abricots (Apricot Omelet). — 
4 eggs, 1 dessertspoonful of caster sugar, 1 tablespoonful 
of cream, a pinch of salt, 1 oz. of butter, apricot jam. Break 
four eggs into a basin, add a dessertspoonful of caster sugar, 
a small pinch of salt, and a tablespoonful of cream or milk ; 
beat up and mix well. Melt about an ounce of fresh butter 

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in an omelet pan ; when hot, pour in the mixture, and pro- 
ceed as described above. Warm in a small stevvpan 
about two tablespoonfuls of apricot jam. When the omelet 
is set and ready for folding, put the jam in the centre, then 
fold in the sides, shape it nicely, and turn out on a warm dish, 
dredge with caster or icing sugar, glaze with a red-hot iron 
all over the surface, or mark out some suitable design with the 
hot iron. Serve quickly. N.B. — Any other kind of fruit pre- 
serve may be used in place of apricot jam. Great care must 
be taken to get the preserve enclosed in the centre of an 
omelet, otherwise the dish will look unsightly. 

256. Omelette Souffl£e k la Plombtere.— 3 oz. of 
caster sugar, £ oz. of ground almonds, 1 dessertspoonful of 
cornflour, 1 liqueur-glassful of maraschino, 6 eggs, 4 maca- 
roons, a tiny piece of butter. Pound the macaroons in a 
mortar till quite fine, put them in a basin with the almonds. 
Separate the yolks from the whites of eggs, and put the former 
into the basin with the macaroons, &c, add the sugar and 
stir vigorously until the whole resembles a creamy substance. 
When thus worked and the mixture has attained the desired 
consistency, stir in the liqueur, beat up the whites of eggs 
to a very stiff froth (add a pinch of salt to the whites before 
commencing to whisk them), mix the whole by folding in, 
not stirring in, the whites and the cornflour. Dress this on a 
slightly buttered and floured china or silver dish, pile up 
high and smooth over quickly with the blade of a knife ; 
dredge with sugar, bake in a moderate oven for about twenty 
minutes, and serve at once. 

257. Rice Omelet. — 1 cup of cold boiled rice, 1 table- 
spoonful of milk, 2 eggs, seasoning to taste, 1 oz. of butter. 
Mix the rice and milk, add the eggs, the whites and yolks 
beaten separately, melt a heaped teaspoonful of butter in 
an omelet pan, pour in the mixture and fry in the usual 
manner, fold over, and serve on a hot dish. This omelet 
may be flavoured to taste ; a little anchovy paste mixed 
with butter is suitable to spread on it when cooked. 

' 258. Savoury Omelet.--^ oz. fresh butter, 2 or 3 eggs, a 
tablespoonful of cream, a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, a 
shallot, pepper and salt. Put the chafing-dish over the 
lamp, melt in it about half an ounce of fresh butter, and 
fry half a finely-chopped shallot to a light golden colour. 

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Have ready two or three well-beaten eggs, seasoned, and 
mixed with the cream and chopped parsley. Pour this into 
the chafing-dish or pan, and cook whilst continuously stirring 
with a fork till the mixture begins to set, then fold in the two 
ends so as to form a cushion shape. Allow it to take colour ; 
the omelet is then ready for serving. 

259. Savoury Omelet, French Style.— 4 eggs, 1 dessert- 
spoonful chopped parsley, including a leaf or two of green 
tarragon and a sprig of chervil, 1 tablespoonf ul cream, a pinch 
of sweet herbs, 1 oz. butter, a clove of garlic, pepper and salt. 
Break the eggs in a basin, add the cream, and beat up well ; 
add the chopped herbs and seasoning. Cut the clove of 
garlic, and wipe the inside of the omelet-pan with the cut 
side. Melt the butter in this pan, clarify, and when hot pour 
in the egg mixture. Stir over a brisk fire with a fork until the 
eggs begin to set, then roll towards the side of the pan opposite 
the handle. Allow it to take a golden brown colour. Turn 
out on a hot oval dish, and serve. Tarragon and sweet herbs, 
or the flavour of garlic may be omitted. A small chopped 
shallot may be added to the butter and fried a little, if liked. 

260. Sweet Omelet.— 3 eggs, 1 oz. of butter, 1 table- 
spoonful of caster sugar, 6 drops of essence of lemon or 
vanilla, 1 tablespoonf ul of raspberry or apricot jam. Care- 
fully separate the yolks from the whites ; beat the yolks and 
sugar till they are thick and pale, add the flavouring essence. 
Whip the whites on a plate to a stiff froth, add them lightly 
to the yolks, beat the butter in an omelet pan, pour in the 
mixture, cook for two minutes over the fire, then put it 
into the oven or under a grill for two minutes to lightly 
brown the top. Do not overcook it. Turn out, place a 
spoonful of jam on one half, and fold over. Sprinkle with 
sugar and serve at once on a hot dish. If preferred, make 
two omelets with the above quantities, and serve them hot 
like a layer cake with the jam between. 



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CURRIES 

261. Hints on the making of Curries.— That there 
is an art in making a good curry cannot be denied, so much 
depends upon the cook understanding the various processes 
and degrees of frying and simmering the ingredients, and in 
blending the whole with judgment in the matter of flavouring. 
The curries which suit the English taste are a mixture of 
Indian and European cookery, for such as suit the native 
population of India and Ceylon would be found too hot 
and greasy and too strongly flavoured with garlic to be 
welcomed at our tables. Curries are generally divided into 
three classes, viz., moist Madras and dry Madras, Bengal, 
and Ceylon or Malay curries. Hard-boiled eggs may be 
halved, care being taken not to separate the white from 
the yolk ; vegetables, such as marrows and cucumbers, should 
be cut into dice, potatoes into thick slices, and cauliflowers 
broken into neat little sprigs. They should be eaten with 
a spoon and fork. 

Making Curry in a Casserole. — Probably there is no pot 
so good in which to make a curry as a fireproof casserole. 
It can be kept so clean, and food cooked in it may be left in 
it, without fear of metal-poisoning, till required for re- 
warming, and curry is generally better when made the day 
previous to serving. Another point in its favour is that, 
being made of earthenware, an English cook is more inclined 
to keep it at the side of the stove during the process of 
cooking than over it for any length of time, lest it should 
break, and thus fear of burning and boiling are lessened, 
both of which are fatal to good curry-making. The choice of 
a first-rate curry powder is very necessary, and to this may be 
added an equally good curry paste ; some chutney, grated 
cocoanut or desiccated cocoanut, green ginger, lemon-juice, 

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Vegetarian Cookery 

and red currant jelly, are also required for turning out a 
satisfactory dish of curry. 

262. Spices and Flavours.-— In India the curry spices 
are generally freshly ground by the natives, and tamarinds 
and the milk of cocoanuts are used to give the combination 
of acid and nutty flavours so much appreciated ; the latter is 
well simulated by making an infusion of desiccated cocoanut 
in boiling water, and having allowed it to stand for some time 
in a covered vessel, it should be poured off, and the cocoanut 
well pressed to extract its flavour ; a still nicer infusion can be 
made by adding a tablespoonful of ground almonds to a table- 
spoonful and a half of desiccated cocoanut ; this quantity is 
sufficient to make half a pint of the infusion ; in Ceylon curries 
the grated cocoanut and almonds are generally cooked in the 
sauce, to which, after it is strained, the infusion is added. 
Green ginger can be obtained of the herbalists in Covent 
Garden, and it is used freshly rasped or pounded, a good tea- 
spoonful being enough for a Madras curry. The flavour of 
tamarinds can be supplied by using a good spoonful of red- 
currant jelly and adding some lemon-juice just before serving 
the curry ; an acid fruit flavour is essential, and it is therefore 
necessary to supply it either by chopped raw apples, sliced 
rhubarb, or gooseberries, should the above recommendation 
not be applicable. Onions are plentifully used in all curries. 
Garlic, when sparingly used, gives a distinct improvement, and 
it is a pity that there should be so much national prejudice 
against this valuable flavouring bulb, which, though allied to< 
the onion, has altogether a special flavour of its own. 

263. Frying of Vegetables.— The frying of vegetables is 
a matter of considerable importance in this branch of cookery ; 
the fat must be of good quality ; either butter or oil can be 
used, but it must not be overheated, or a coarse taste will 
ensue. When hot the vegetables should be added to it and 
fried brown without a particle being burnt ; the onions should 
be carefully removed as soon as fried and replaced in the pan 
after the other materials are ready for stewing. The curry 
powder or mixture requires thorough cooking to take away 
the crude taste of the turmeric, which forms one of its principal 
ingredients. It is best to mix the curry powder, paste, salt, 
and a thickening of fine rice or lentil flour, and stir it into the 
frying-butter after the onions are sufficiently cooked, and stir 

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Curries 

it over the fire till well fried, adding a little liquid occasionally 
to prevent it burning. Having added sufficient liquid to make 
the sauce, the previously fried vegetables should be added, and 
the simmering process may begin, and this must really be 
simmering and not boiling ; the length of time for which it is 
continued must depend on the kind and quality of the vege- 
table ; hard-boiled eggs should marinate in the curry sauce, 
and should be allowed to lie in it till thoroughly imbued with the 
flavour, but stirring should be avoided, lest it should break and 
spoil the appearance of the pieces. Ceylon curry is especially 
good when vegetables, such as cucumbers, marrow, and 
broccoli sprigs, are used. 

264. Dry Vegetable Curry (1).— 4 raw onions, 2 oz. of 
butter, 1 dessertspoonful of curry powder, a little minced 
parsley and thyme, cayenne, juice of 1 lemon, i pt. of water, 
i£ pt. of cold cooked vegetables. Fry the sliced onions in the 
butter till golden brown, stir in the curry powder, parsley, 
thyme, and cayenne, and let fry for a minute or two ; add the 
liquid, and let all boil together till very thick. Then stir in 
the cooked vegetables (carrots cut in small cubes, cauliflower 
broken small, French or broad beans, haricot beans, &c.); 
stir these into the sauce till they are thoroughly hot and the 
sauce has dried on them. Serve on a hot dish within a wall of 
boiled rice, garnished with hard-boiled quartered eggs, green 
or red chillies, &c. 

265. Vegetable Curry (2). — i lb. of cooked French beans, 
1 apple, 1 onion, 1 chilli, 1 tablespoonful of curry powder, 2 
cardamoms, grated cocoanut, £ pt. of milk. Cut up the vege- 
tables and chilli small, put all into a stewpan and cook slowly 
for one hour, then thicken with a little grated cocoanut which 
has been steeped in milk. 

266. Vegetable Curry (3). — 2 carrots, 2 turnips, £ pt. of 
peas, 2 potatoes, 1 raw onion, i£ oz. of butter, £ pt. of milk, 2 
tablespoonfuls of curry powder, 1 teaspoonful of lemon- juice, 
1 teaspoonful of salt. Have ready the vegetables, all cooked 
separately, and the carrots, turnips, and potatoes cut into 
small pieces. Melt the butter in a stewpan, in it fry the sliced 
onion, then the curry powder, add the milk and seasonings, 
and boil for about five minutes. Put the vegetables into the 
sauce and warm for about five minutes. 

267. Curried Broad Beans.— Shell enough broad beans 

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to make a pint, and boil them in plenty of slightly-salted 
water till tender (boil fast all the time). Drain the beans and 
remove the skin whilst hot. Plunge four fine but ripe tomatoes 
into boiling water for a moment, skin them, cut them into slices, 
and toss in a little butter in a frying-pan ; season with salt and 
pepper, and moisten with a small quantity of curry sauce. Dress 
these neatly on a dish surrounded by a border of plainly-boiled 
rice, pile the broad beans in the centre, sprinkle with finely- 
chopped parsley, and a good pinch of paprika pepper. 
Stand the dish in a hot oven for three minutes, and send to 
table at once. 

268. Curried Haricots and Eggs. — J pt. of cooked 
haricots, 2 hard-boiled eggs, i£ oz. of butter, 3 small onions, 
half an acid apple, 1 tablespoonful of ground rice, 1 table- 
spoonful of curry powder, 1 tablespoonful of curry paste, J a 
tablespoonful of desiccated cocoanut, juice of a lemon^ 
seasoning, J pt. of the water in which the haricots were 
cooked. Melt the butter in a saucepan, add chopped onions 
and apple, fry lightly for two minutes, add rice, paste, and 
curry powder. Cook for five minutes. Now stir in the water 
by degrees, and let the whole boil until a thick, smooth sauce 
is obtained. The lemon- juice, cocoanut, and seasoning go in 
next. Chop the eggs, mix the haricots, and make the whol6 
thoroughly hot in the sauce. Serve in a border of well-cooked 
rice, garnished with cut lemon and parsley. 

269. Haricot Bean Curry.— 1 pt. haricot beans, 2 oz. 
butter, a large onion, 2 apples, a tablespoonful of grated or 
desiccated cocoanut, a dessertspoonful of caster sugar, a table- 
spoonful of curry powder, i a lemon, a tablespoonful of 
flour. Steep the beans for at least twelve hours ; place in a 
saucepan with sufficient cold water to cover, and boil gently 
till soft ; drain in a colander ; melt the butter in the saucepan, 
fry in it the chopped onion till lightly browned, stir in the 
chopped apple, then add the curry powder and flour, and 
stir over the fire till well fried, but be careful not to burn j 
then add the cocoanut and some of the milk, or failing this, 
cow's milk or the water in which the haricots were boiled 
(about half a pint of liquid will be required), stir till boiled, 
then put in the beans and sugar and let warm through very 
gradually ; before serving, add the juice of half a lemon. Serve 
with a border of rice. 

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270. Lentil Curry. — Soak overnight half a pound of split 
lentils, boil for a quarter of an hour and drain dry. Fry 
some onions till brown, add to them the lentils, pepper and 
salt, and a pint of water. Simmer all together for two hours, 
then add a teaspoonful of lemon-juice and a dessertspoonful 
of curry powder. Mix thoroughly, simmer for a few minutes, 
and serve with a border of boiled rice. 

271. Curried Mushrooms.— £ lb. of button-mushrooms, 
i£ oz. of butter, curry sauce, toast, boiled rice. Peel the 
mushrooms, remove the stems, and wash them. Drain the 
mushrooms, and season them with pepper and salt. Melt 
the butter in a saute-pan, and fry the mushrooms in this for a 
few minutes. Pour off the fat, and add sufficient curry sauce 
to barely cover the mushrooms. Cook slowly for about fifteen 
minutes longer. Dress them on slices of crisp toast placed on 
a dish, pour the sauce round the dish, and send to table with a 
plate of plainly-cooked rice. 

272. Curried Rice.— 4 oz. rice, 2 shallots, 1 gill brown 
sauce, 1 hard-boiled egg, seasoning, 1 teaspoonful curry 
powder, i\ oz. butter, 1 tomato, 1 tablespoonful cream, 
watercress for garnish. Pick, wash, and drain the rice. 
Peel and chop the shallots. Melt the butter in a stewpan, 
add the shallots, and fry a golden colour. Stir in the curry 
powder, and fry a few minutes longer, stirring all the while ; 
then add the rice, and shake the pan over the fire in order 
to blend the rice thoroughly. Moisten gradually with the 
brown sauce and cream. Peel the tomato, cut it into dice, 
and add also. Cook gently till the rice is tender. Be careful 
that the rice is kept moistened, as it swells in cooking ; stir 
frequently but gently. Season with salt, pepper, and a pinch 
of ground mace and nutmeg. Dish up, surround the base 
with slices of hard-boiled egg, and a tuft of watercress 
between each slice of egg. Serve very hot. 



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MACARONI 

273. — To cook macaroni to perfection only two things are 
necessary : a big saucepanful of boiling water and a handful 
of salt. Ascertain that the water has reached the galloping 
stage, throw in the salt, and then the macaroni. By the time 
it has absorbed half the water it will be sufficiently cooked ; 
therefore drain it on a hair sieve, and proceed to use it as 
may be desired. Note, however, that when the macaroni is 
to be used as an adjunct to a stew of either meat or fish, it 
must not be allowed to become thoroughly cooked, but 
should be " finished off " till tender in the gravy or sauce 
of the dish it is meant to accompany. Further, as a nursery 
food, macaroni is invaluable, and it will be found that 
children who dislike and will not touch the old-fashioned 
pudding of that name will welcome their erstwhile enemy 
with open mouths when dressed a la vanille and served with 
a liberal spoonful of cream allotted to each child ; while in 
the summer time, if previously cooked macaroni is added to 
a dish of hot stewed cherries or strawberries, with " oceans," 
as the little ones say, of syrup, it will be received with a 
hearty welcome when even their beloved roly-poly would be 
treated with disdain by languid little appetites. 

274. Macaroni a la Bretonne. — Boil a pound of 
macaroni, drain it carefully, and cut it into lengths. Have 
ready half a pint of Bretonne sauce and let the macaroni 
cook gently in it till half the moisture is absorbed ; pile up in 
the centre of a white fireproof china dish, scatter fried bread- 
crumbs on top, place in a hot oven for five or six minutes, 
and serve with grated cheese handed separately. Bretonne 
sauce is made as follows ; Chop two large onions finely, place 
them in a stewpan with an ounce of butter, and fry till of a 
bright brown colour. Then add half a pint of brown roux 

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and a gill of water, season with pepper and salt, flavour with 
ketchup, boil slowly for five minutes without reducing, pass 
through a hair sieve, and use as directed. For children, 
macaroni a la vanille is prepared as follows : Boil a pound of 
macaroni, drain, and cut it into two-inch lengths. Put a pint 
and a half of new milk into a clean enamelled saucepan with 
four ounces of sifted sugar and a bit of vanilla stick. Let the 
macaroni cook gently till all of the milk is absorbed, then 
serve with sweetened or Devonshire cream. 

275. Macaroni a la Cr6me. — Boil a pound of macaroni 
till tender, and drain on a hair sieve. Have ready a stewpan 
containing four ounces of fresh butter and eight ounces of 
grated Dutch or Parmesan cheese and a gill of double cream. 

f Season highly with white pepper, add the macaroni, and toss 
over a brisk fire till very hot. Great care must be taken that 
the cream does not " catch." Serve immediately, garnished 

* w* with fleurons of pastry fried. 

*~ 276. Macaroni a la Florentine.— Prepare a croustade. 

GJ Parboil half a pound of macaroni and drain it upon a hair 

sieve ; put a pint and a half of milk and half a pint of cream 

I into a clean enamelled saucepan, add four ounces of sifted 

? . sugar, some vanilla pod, about an ounce of butter, and the 

^lengths of macaroni. Cook slowly over a slack fire till the 

\£ ^ macaroni has absorbed the milk and cream ; take out the 

^ ^ vanilla, add an ounce of very mild grated cheese, fill up the 

^ ^ croustade with the macaroni, scatter brown sugar on top, 

s make hot in a very quick oven, and serve directly. This is a 

delicious and uncommon sweet, but it should be eaten as 

soon as possible after being taken from the oven. 

277. Macaroni a l'ltalienne. — Boil half a pound of 

* macaroni, adding to the water it is boiled in a little pepper as 
well as salt, and a bit of butter. When cooked, drain care- 
fully and cut up into two-inch lengths. Have ready a 
stewpan containing a gill of good tomato sauce, and two 
ounces of fresh butter. Make this mixture very hot, then add 
the macaroni and toss for five or six minutes over a quick fire. 
Add four ounces of grated cheese. Toss agaipu^for five 
minutes and serve immediately. Spaghetti can be used for 
this dish, but must not be cut up. , / ' 

278. Macaroni a la Provencale.-rf Boil half a* p/mnd of 
macaroni and drain, but do not cut ft up. RttTJ #stewpan 

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Vegetarian Cookery 

with a clove of garlic, put into it a gill of Lucca oil, place the 
pan over a slow fire, and as soon as the oil boils add half a 
dozen finely-minced shallots. Fry for two or three minutes, 
then add the macaroni, and continue tossing over the fire till 
all the oil is absorbed. Serve immediately upon a very hot 
dish and with grated cheese handed separately. 

279. Macaroni au Gratin. — Boil a pound of macaroni 
till tender, drain upon a hair sieve and cut it up into three- 
inch lengths. Then put it into an enamelled stewpart with 
a quarter of a pound of grated cheese (Dutch cheese can be 
used in place of Parmesan if the latter is considered too 
expensive). Add two ounces of butter and about a gill of 
very rich white sauce, mix thoroughly, and pile up in the 
centre of a white fireproof china dish ; scatter breadcrumbs 
and grated cheese over the top, bake in a very quick oven for 
ten minutes, and serve immediately. 

280. Macaroni and Onions, Boiled. — i lb. Naples 
macaroni, 3 Spanish onions, J oz. butter, chopped parsley. 
Break the macaroni into inch lengths, and set it in boiling 
water with salt and the Spanish onions peeled and cut into 
slices. Boil thus for three-quarters of an hour. When the 
onions are done, strain and turn on to a hot dish. Season 
with pepper and salt and a small piece of butter. Just before 
sending to table sprinkle a little finely-chopped parsley over, 
and be careful to serve piping hot. 

281. Macaroni, Curried. — Boil six ounces of macaroni 
for fifteen minutes in water, slightly salted, and with a very 
small piece of butter dissolved in it ; drain it perfectly, and 
then put it in a full pint and a quarter of good gravy, 
previously mixed, and boiled for twenty minutes with a small 
teaspoonful of fine curry powder, a teaspoonful of arrowroot, 
and a little lemon- juice. Heat and toss the macaroni gently 
in this until it is well and equally covered with it. A small 
quantity of rich cream will very much improve the sauce, into 
which it should be stirred just before the macaroni is added j 
the lemon-juice should be thrown in afterwards. 



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282. Liaisons (Thickenings or Bindings).— The various 
processes of thickening sauces as well as soups are called 
liaisons. There are five distinct methods known for thicken- 
ing sauces : — 

1. Liaison with roux. Sec p. 21. 

2. Liaison with eggs. 

3. Liaison with butter and cream. 

4. Liaison with butter and flour kneaded. 

5. Liaison with cornflour, arrowroot, or fecula. 

283. Egg Liaison.— This is a thickening composed of 
yolks of eggs beaten up and diluted with a small quantity 
of cream. The Sauce to which this liaison is added must 
necessarily be boiling ; it is then removed to the side of the 
stove, when a ladleful of sauce is stirred into the egg mixture, 
then the whole is poured into the sauce and stirred over the 
fire (slow) for several minutes without permitting it to boil. 
Every sauce or soup which is thickened with eggs must be 
passed through a tammy before it can be used. 

284. Btitter and Cream Liaison. — Butter and cream 
are incorporated in equal proportions into sauces and soups 
just before they are wanted for serving. Stir vigorously 
without reheating. The flavour of any sauce would become 
altered if butter or cream were added too soon or if a sauce 
were allowed to boil. The same may be said of butter 
liaisons. By this process a quantity of cold fresh butter is 
added in small bits to sauces the moment they are taken off 
the fire ; they are then stirred with a whisk and served with- 
out being reheated. 

285. Kneaded Butter Liaison.— To incorporate or 
knead as much flour into butter as it will absorb to form a 
90ft paste, and to mix it in small portions into a thin sauce 

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(hot), stirring it constantly until all the butter is melted, 
constitutes what is called a kneaded butter liaison. 

286. White Sauces.— These, as every one knows, need 
not always be white, for very often they are found to be of a 
creamy, yellow, or greenish colour ; but the white sauces — 
the foundation sauces proper — are the result of what has 
already been explained, viz., a blending of flour and butter 
and a certain amount of boiling, which in the first stage 
becomes a white cullis or a veloute* but are subsequently 
enriched with cream, yolks of eggs, or butter, in order to give 
them their respective and distinctive characters. 

287. Brown Sauces. — The brown sauce, on the other 
hand, has to go through a process of roasting in the first 
instance — viz., the preparation of the brown roux, which is 
roasting flour and butter, and this is really the cause of the 
distinction of the different flavour which is imparted by this 
very simple method. This, in addition to the boiling and 
simmering processes of the various vegetables and other 
ingredients which produce a brown sauce, shows the 
difference between white and brown sauces. 

288. Ordinary or Plain Sauces.— It should be remem- 
bered that ordinary sauces, prepared on the quick system, 
should be allowed to boil at least ten minutes from the time 
the liquid is added. When a sauce is cooked less than ten 
minutes the flour will not have had time to develop its flavour 
proper for sauces, and the butter cannot separate from the 
other ingredients ; it will then only partially separate, which 
gives sauce a greasy appearance. 

289. On Salad Sauces.— What a Bechamel is to a white 
sauce the Mayonnaise is to salad dressings and sauces. It is 
a mixture of yolks of eggs, sweet oil, salt, pepper, and vinegar ; 
its excellence depends entirely on the method of working 
it up ; the result must be a thick cream, without a trace of 
oil, nor must there be any flavour of the rawness of the eggs. 
The exact ingredients necessary to produce a perfect Mayon- 
naise sauce (pure and simple) are as follows : — 2 yolks of eggs, 
J teaspoonful of pepper, £ *teaspoonf ul of salt, 1 pt. of oil 
and vinegar (1 tablespoonf ul to every 8 tablespoonfuls of oil). 

Method. — The yolks, salt, and pepper are first worked smooth 
by a wooden spoon or spatula in a basin (placed on ice it 
possible), then add the oil, at first drop by drop, then later 

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a few drops at a time and a few drops of vinegar, stirring 
continuously all the time until the remainder of the oil and 
Vinegar has been gradually used up. The mixture will then 
present a thick, smooth, and creamy-looking compound. 
The process of stirring is long and somewhat tedious, and, 
if not carefully done, the mixture, instead of becoming smooth, 
will separate. In warm temperature it is more difficult to 
prepare a mayonnaise, but this is easily overcome by placing 
the basin in which the sauce is manipulated on ice. If the 
sauce is found too consistent, it may be diluted with a little 
raw cream or cold water. The above is a perfect mayonnaise 
sauce, but most cooks have a pet recipe made on these lines, 
and various flavourings or seasonings are added. This is 
another salad sauce of the mayonnaise type, prepared in 
exactly the same manner : — The yolk of one or two raw eggs, 
a pinch of dry mustard, a quarter of a pint of best olive oil, a 
teaspoonfui of lemon-juice, with a little tarragon or other 
vinegar. When to mix with such materials as eggs, potatoes, 
and the like, of an absorbent nature, one can indulge in a little 
more acid than usual. If at any time the sauce refuses to 
thicken properly, a remedy is to be had by starting atyresh 
with a well-beaten raw egg in another basin and gradually 
adding the sauce to it ; or by stirring in gradually until 
sufficiently thick a little good melted-butter sauce (made very 
thick and left to get perfectly cold). Although not quite 
so nice, this is better than throwing it all away, and thus 
wasting good materials. 

290. Simple French Dressing.— In addition to the 
dressing a la francaise a simple French vinaigrette (oil and 
vinegar) dressing can be made thus at the sideboard and 
added to the prepared salad just before serving : — Into a 
tablespoon or large salad-server put a small saltspoonful 
each of black pepper, salt, and caster sugar, nearly half -fill 
the spoon with tarragon or French vinegar, mix the in- 
gredients, then completely fill it with best salad oil, mix, then 
stir it lightly into the salad .until all is thoroughly well 
flavoured. This is sufficient for an ordinary plain salad, but 
it needs good stirring. For those who have a distinct 
repugnance to the taste of oil, cream, cold melted-butter 
sauce, boiled potato (mashed), and hard-boiled eggs (yolks 
only) arc required to produce a salad dressing acceptable and 

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bland, which may be seasoned to taste with vinegar, lemon- 
juice, pepper, salt, sugar, &c. 

291. Asparagus Sauce (Sauce d'Asperges). — i pt. of 
asparagus points, 1 oz . butter, 1 oz. flour, i pt . milk, £ pt. cream, 
lemon-juice. Take the asparagus points and boil until tender 
in one pint of salted water, drain carefully and keep the water. 
Melt the butter and add to it the flour, then add the milk and 
half a pint of the asparagus water, stir carefully until it boils, 
season and put in a squeeze of lemon-juice and the cream ; 
at the moment of serving add the asparagus points — if allowed 
to stand in the sauce they would turn a bad colour. 

292. Aurore Sauce. — White sauce, tomato ketchup. Add 
sufficient tomato ketchup to tint the white sauce. 

293. Bechamel Sauce. — 1£ oz. flour, i£ pt. milk, a small 
bouquet, half a bayleaf, 3 oz. butter, 1 small onion or 
shallot, 10 peppercorns, 1 small blade of mace, seasoning. 
Put the milk on to boil with the onion or shallot (peeled), the 
bouquet, peppercorns, mace, and bayleaf. Melt the butter, 
stir in the flour, and cook a little without browning (or use 
white roux), stir in the milk, &c. (hot), whisk over the fire 
until it boils, and let simmer from fifteen to twenty minutes. 
Take out the bouquet, rub through a sieve or tammy, return 
to the stewpan, season lightly with a pinch of nutmeg, half- 
pinch of cayenne, and half a teaspoonful of salt. This sauce 
is then ready for use. 

294. Beurre Noir. — This sauce is much used on the 
Continent ; it is very delicious and not inordinately expensive. 
Put fnto a stewpan three large tablespoonfuls of tarragon 
vinegar, a tablespoonf ul o£ finely-chopped capers, a dessert- 
spoonful of Harvey sauce, and the same amount of mushroom 
ketchup ; add pepper and salt to taste ;.boil for five minutes, 
then draw to the side of the stove. Next fry four ounces of 
fresh butter till it acquires a brown hue. Have ready a heated 
gravy strainer and run the butter through this into the stew- 

. pan containing the capers, &c. Mix briskly. Boil up again 
and serve immediately. 

295. Bread Sauce. — 1 pt. milk, 1 onion, 4 white pepper- 
corns, z clove, nutmeg, cayenne, salt, 4 oz. breadcrumbs, 1 oz. 
butter, a little cream. Boil the milk with the peeled and 
quartered onion, peppercorns, and clpve till the onion is 
tender, then strain ; have ready the breadcrumbs (rubbed 

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through a wire sieve), pour the seasoned milk over them and 
return all to the saucepan, cover and let soak for ten minutes ; 
now beat it with a fork, season with pepper, salt, grated 
nutmeg or powdered mace, and enrich with the butter ; boil 
up and serve. A little cream added just before sending to 
table is an improvement. The butter is not a necessity. 

296. Breton Sauce. — Fried onions, brown sauce, lemon- 
juice. Fry some finely-chopped onions in butter till a rich 
brown, pass all through a hair sieve, add to brown sauce and 
finish with a squeeze of lemon-juice. N.B. — If lemon-juice 
cannot be used, employ a few drops of good vinegar to sauces. 

297. Caper or Gherkin Sauce.— Add to white, brown, 
or melted-butter sauce chopped capers or finely-sliced 
gherkins ; with the former add a teaspoonf ul of the vinegar 
from the capers, with the latter a teaspoonful of tarragon 
vinegar. 

y 298. Chestnut Sauce. — 1 lb. Spanish chestnuts, milk, 
seasoning. Remove the outer skin from the chestnuts, then 
put them in a saucepan of boiling water and cook till the 
inner skins can be peeled off. Now finish cooking in milk, 
and when tender enough rub through a sieve; add pepper 
and salt, and serve hot. 

299. Cream Sauce.— 1 oz. butter, a tablespoonful of fine 
flour, i pt. milk and cream mixed, 1 yolk of egg, seasoning. 
Melt an ounce of butter in a small saucepan, stir into it an 
even tablespoonful of fine flour ; when quite smooth, stir in the 
milk and cream mixed, stir till well boiled, then draw it aside 
from the fire and let it cool a little ; add the beaten yolk 
of egg, a little salt, cayenne, and lemon- juice, carefully warm 
without boiling and use immediately. 

V 300. Cucumber Sauce.— Half a cucumber, | gill Bechamel 
sauce, 1 gill mayonnaise sauce, \ gill cream, salt, pepper, 
spinach greening. Peel thinly the cucumber and cut into 
small pieces, boil in salted water till tender and rub through 
a hair sieve. Return the pulp to the stewpan, add the 
B6chamel sauce, let it reduce to about half the original 
quantity, and then cool. Whip the cream till stiff, work in 
the mayonnaise sauce and mix slowly with the reduced cold 
sauce, add a little salt and pepper if needed, also a few drops 
of spinach greening ; the sauce is then ready for use. 
301. Curry Sauce. — f oz. butter, \ oz. curry powder, 
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I clove of garlic, 3 or 4 green gooseberries or a couple of 
slices of green, sour apple, brown stock, 2 shallots, 1 dessert- 
spoonful of chutney, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, lemon- juice, 
and a pinch of caster sugar. First peel the shallots and mince 
finely, cut the garlic in two, and rub the bottom of a small 
stewpan with the cut side of garlic ; then put in the butter 
and let it melt When hot, fry the shallots a pale yellow, 
stir in the curry powder and the flour, and fry a light brown 
colour, stirring continuously. Now add the gooseberries 
or apple (previously chopped), and moisten with about half 
a pint of good vegetable stock ; stir till it boils, skim off the 
fat, add the remainder of the ingredients, and let simmer for 
twenty to twenty-five minutes. Remove the scum and fat, 
tammy the sauce, season to taste, and use as required. A 
little sweet or sour cream may be added, if liked. 

302. Egg Sauce. — 2 or 3 eggs, 1 oz. butter, 1 oz. flour, 
3 pt. milk, lemon-juice, pepper, salt. Boil the eggs until they 
are quite hard, throw them into cold water for half an hour, 
take off the shells and separate the yolks from, the whites. 
Dissolve the butter in a saucepan, stir in the flour, add the 
milk and stir till well boiled, add the finely-chopped eggs, 
and season with lemon-juice, cayenne and salt. Some people 
like the addition of some finely-chopped parsley. 
. 303. Hollandaise Sauce. — 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 

1 bay leaf, 1 shallot (peeled and chopped), 1 gill white sauce, 

2 yolks of eggs, 2 oz. butter, 4 white peppercorns (crushed). 
Put the vinegar (French wine vinegar in preference to malt 
vinegar) with the shallot, bayleaf and peppercorns in a stew- 
pan, and reduce to half its original quantity ; add the white 
sauce, let it boil ; remove the bayleaf and stir in the yolks 
of eggs when it begins to thicken. Remove from the fire and 
strain into another stewpan. Reheat — taking great care 
that the sauce does not curdle — and whisk in the butter 
by degrees; lastly, add the lemon-juice and enough salt 
to taste. 

304. Horseradish Sauce (Cold).— A root of horseradish, 
a gill of cream, a tablespoonful of vinegar, seasoning. Grate 
finely a small root of horseradish and mix with it well, off the 
fire, a gill of cream slightly whisked, a pinch of sugar, a little 
salt, and the vinegar. Stir till the sauce is quite smooth and 
keep in a cold place till wanted. 

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305. Horseradish Sauce (Hot).— A large stick of horse- 
radish, 1 pt. water, 1 oz. butter, a dessertspoonful each of 
ketchup and tarragon vinegar, the juice of half a lemon, 
mustard, salt, pepper. Grate the horseradish very finely and 
put into a small lined saucepan with one pint of water ; as 
soon as it boils, stir in the butter, ketchup, tarragon vinegar, 
lemon- juice, half a teaspoonful of made mustard, and salt 
to taste. Stir till thoroughly blended and as thick as good 
cream. 

306. Maitre d'Hotel Butter.— 2 oz. butter, a large table- 
spoonful of very finely-chopped parsley, white pepper, salt, 
lemon-juice. Mix the parsley and butter on a plate with a 
knife ; add a little white pepper, salt, and lemon- juice ; set 
in a cold place. 

307. Maitre d'Hdtel Sauce. — To a gill of white sauce 
add a little mushroom juice, a tablespoonful of finely-chopped 
parsley* pepper and salt, the juice of half a lemon, and a little 
nutmeg. Make very hot and serve. 

308. Mayonnaise Aspic Cream.— i gill Bechamel or 
other white sauce, £ pt. liquid aspic jelly, a teaspoonful 
of tarragon vinegar, £ gill double cream, cayenne, mignonette 
pepper. Warm half a gill of Bechamel or other good white 
sauce, add the tarragon vinegar, stir this into the aspic jelly, 
set to cool a little, then mix with a double cream, season with 
a pinch of cayenne and mignonette pepper, pass through 
a sieve or tammy cloth. 

309. Mint Sauce (Cold). — Mint, brown sugar, vinegar, 
pepper. Wash a large handful of mint, pick off the leaves 
and tender shoots, shake them dry in a cloth, then chop on 
a board till very fine. Dissolve a tablespoonful of brown 
sugar in a little boiling water ; when cold, add two tablespoon- 
fuls of vinegar, the mint and a little pepper. 

310. Mushroom Sauce. — Fry a dozen small mushrooms 
in half an ounce of butter ; when done, add by degrees half a 
pint of good brown roux, a glass of mushroom ketchup, half a 
glass of sherry, and a pinch of pepper and sugar ; boil carefully 
for ten minutes, then remove any grease that may have 
risen ; stir in a tablespoonful of cream, boil up again, without 
reducing, and use as needed. 

311. Mustard Sauce. — £ pt. good brown sauce, a tea- 
spoonful of French vinegar, £ teaspoonful each of English 

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and French mustard, and a pinch pi cayenne. To the brown 
sauce add when boiling the French vinegar, English and 
French rnustard and a pinch of cayenne. 

313. Onion Sauce.— 4 large onions, 2 oz. butter, 2 oz. 
flour, x pt. milk, seasoning. Peel and cut into; slices four 
large onions, boil them for a few minutes, so as to make them 
less strong, drain them, chop them finely, and then put them 
into a pan with two ounces of flour, and the same quantity of 
butter, add a pint of milk and mix well. Season with pepper 
and salt, and stir over the fire till cooked ; this will probably 
be in about ten minutes. Serve very hot* 

313. Parsley Sauce. — 1 pt. melted-butter sauce ; dessert- 
spoonful chopped parsley. Blanch the parsley by throwing 
it into boiling water ; chop fine and add to the sauce ; season 
with pepper, salt, and lemon-juice. 

314. Plain Bechamel Sauce (White Sauce). — 2 oz. 
butter* ii oz. flour, a small onion and carrot, 1 pt. cold milk, 
salt, pepper, nutmeg, lemon-juice. Put nearly two ounces of 
butter into a stewpan with a small onion and carrot, and fry 
for a few minutes, but do not let it take colour ; add the flour 
and stir well together ; now pour on the milk, and stir until 
it boils. Season with salt, pepper, and a dust of nutmeg, and 
the remainder of the butter and a few drops of lemon-juice at 
the moment of serving. 

Same Blanche. — To the above sauce add a little cream. 

315. Plain Melted Butter. — i\ oz. butter, 1 oz. flour, 
$ pt. liquid (either water or milk), pepper, salt, lemon- juice. 
Melt in a saucepan over a moderate fire one ounce of butter, 
add the flour, stir the two together for about five minutes till 
the roux, as it is called, is cooked, but is in no way coloured. 
Then add the cold water or other liquid by degrees, stirring 
all the time, and bring gradually to the boil, adding salt and 
white pepper to taste. It is very necessary that the liquid 
should be added a little at a time, for if it is mixed too quickly 
the sauce will not be as smooth as it ought to be. Let it boil 
well for a few minutes, then just as it is ready to go to table 
add the remainder of the butter, previously cut into very 
small pieces, also add a small squeeze of lemon-juice ; the 
latter gives a brilliant appearance as well as a good flavour to 
the sauce. The proportions above given make a good sauce ; 
a simpler one may be made in the same way, using less butter, 

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but the effect is not so rich. Thorough cooking of the roiix, 
boiling of the sauce, and the addition of a small pat of fresh 
butter before serving, are the essential points to be remem- 
bered. Instead of water, milk may be used. On this basis all 
white sauces can be made. 

316. Ravigote or Green Butter. — 3 or 4 sprigs of fresh 
tarragon, 4 sprigs of parsley and fennel, i£ oz. each green 
chives and chervil, 3 minced shallots (fried in butter), 6 oz. 
butter, spinach colouring. Wash and pick over the herbs; 
put all in a saucepan in cold water and bring to the boil, drain 
well and pound in a mortar ; add the minced shallots, pre- 
viously lightly fried in butter, pound them with the other 
ingredients ; when cold, add the fresh butter, pepper and salt, 
and sufficient spinach colouring to make the butter a nice 
green, or, if preferred, a handful of spinach may be cooked 
with the herbs. Rub all through a fine sieve, set in a cold 
place, and use when required. 

317. Sage and Onion Stuffing.— 6 or 8 large onions, 
\ pt. breadcrumbs, a heaped tablespoonf ul of fresh sage leaves 
(finely chopped), 1 oz. butter, salt, pepper, sugar. Peel and 
cut the onions in quarters, and boil them until half done, 
putting them on in cold water, with a pinch of salt and sugar ; 
drain, dry, and chop them up, and add to half a pint, an ounce 
of butter. Cook without letting them take colour in a clean 
saucepan for ten minutes. Add an equal measure of bread- 
crumbs, the sage chopped small, salt and pepper to taste, and, 
if liked, a few grains of nutmeg. A little parsley is thought 
an improvement by many. The boiling and sweating of the 
onions will be found an improvement over the ordinary 
method. Do not omit a tiny pinch of sugar. 

318. Sauce k la Russe. — Take a tablespoonful each of 
chopped parsley, chervil, and tarragon ; have ready half a 
pint of white sauce, to which has been added a gill of 
cream and a teaspoonful of shallot juice ; stir in the chopped 
herbs, and simmer over a slow fire for five minutes. Then 
add a spoonful of finely-grated horseradish, a spoonful of 
French mustard, the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, a tea- 
spoonful of sugar, a pinch of pepper, and a squeeze of lemon. 
Let the sauce get hot, but do not allow it to boil. It should 
be used immediately. 

319. Sauce Supreme.— Make half a pint of white sauce, 

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using milk ; when of the consistency of cream, add a liaison 
of four yolks of eggs, which have been well beaten with two 
ounces of fresh butter, stir this in very gently, then add by 
degrees a gill of double cream, a little essence of mushrooms, 
and a teaspoonful of lemon-juice. Pass through a hair sieve 
into a clean enamelled saucepan, make very hot without 
actually boiling, taking care that the sauce does not get too 
thick, then use as may be required. 

320. Sauce Verte. — A bunch of parsley, chervil, tarragon, 
J pt. good melted butter, J pt. cream, lemon- juice, tarragon 
vinegar, spinach juice, colouring. Blanch and pound a bunch 
of parsley, a few sprigs of chervil and tarragon, and a bunch 
of watercress. Pass through a fine sieve, and mix with a 
quarter of a pint of good melted butter and a quarter of 
a pint of cream ; add a teaspoonful of lemon- juice and 
one of tarragon vinegar. Colour with spinach juice; serve 
very cold. 

321. Sauce Vinaigrette (Cold).— 4 tablespoonfuls of 
sweet oil, 1 tablespoonf ul of tarragon vinegar, 1 tablespoonful 
of onion vinegar, ± a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, a few dried 
herbs, b a teaspoonful of mustard, salt and cayenne. Put the 
oil into a basin, add the seasonings, and lastly, very carefully 
add the vinegars ; serve very cold. 

322. Soubise Sauce. — 3 large onions, 1 oz. butter, cayenne, 
salt. Chop the onions very finely and saute them with the 
butter, but do not allow them to get brown ; then cover with 
water, boil till tender, season, let reduce a little, pass through 
a hair sieve, then reheat. 

323. Tarragon, Chervil, or Fennel Sauce.-— i pt. 
melted-butter sauce, tarragon, chervil, or fennel. To the 
above sauce add just before serving a dessertspoonful of 
either of the finely chopped herbs. 

324. Tartare Sauce.— Put two yolks of eggs in a basin, 
place it in a shallow pan containing some crushed ice, add a 
teaspoonful of salt, a good pinch of white pepper, a pinch of 
cayenne, and a teaspoonful of mustard ; stir well together, 
and add gradually a pint of salad oil, and about a quarter of 
a gill of tarragon vinegar; when the sauce is smooth and 
creamy, stir in a good tablespoonful of cold Bechamel sauce, 
two teaspoonfuls of chopped gherkins, one of chopped 
capers, one of chopped parsley, and about half a teaspoonful 

108 

• 



Liaisons and Sauces 

of finely chopped tarragon and chervil. Do not mix th 
gherkins, capers, &c, until the sauce is finished, as they are 
likely to cause the sauce to turn if put in too soon. A few 
drops of lemon-juice may be added if the sauce is found too 
thick. 

325. White Chaudfroid Sauce.— 1 pt. Bechamel sauce, 
i oz. gelatine. To the Bechamel sauce add the gelatine, 
which has been soaked in water for a short time, stir till 
dissolved, but do not boil the sauce again. 



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SALADS 

326. General Remarks. — An excellent modern definition 
of the term "salad" has thus been given : " Salad is a prepara- 
tion of food to be consumed cold, one or more of whose 
compounds have been obtained from the vegetable kingdom 
(succulent vegetables)." Formerly, in England, a salad con- 
sisted of raw herbs, usually dressed with salt, vinegar, and 
oil, or some other bland ingredient, such as eggs or cream ; 
but now we have adopted the custom of Continental countries, 
and in addition to the green salad we have others cooked and 
raw, of vegetables and fruit, prepared in ways too numerous 
to mention. As a rule a salad is named according to its 
predominant ingredient, the choice of which being left to 
circumstance, it is generally dressed to the taste of the con- 
sumer. In addition to a large number of fancy salads, there 
are others known as winter, summer, and spring salads, 
English, French, Russian, Dutch, Italian, and German, and 
with our cosmopolitan tastes we borrow ideas from all and 
modify them to please ourselves. 

327. The Lettuce Salads.— The most popular salad in 
this country is, no doubt, the lettuce salad — that is to say, 
lettuce forms the greatest part of its ingredients ; in fact, a 
salad in the English style (a l'Anglaise) would not be con- 
sidered as such without its proper proportion of lettuce. A 
great mistake often made in English salads is to allow the 
moisture to cling to the leaves after washing. It is very 
necessary, in preparing any green salad, that every leaf be 
most carefully washed and drained. This is best effected by 
placjng the leaves, after they have been picked, washed and 
torn into convenient pieces, in a wire salad basket, or clean 
cloth, and shaking it well without crushing or bruising the 
leaves ; perhaps the simplest method is to place the leavts in 

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Salads 

a clean, dry cloth, hold it by the four corners, and gently 
swing it round and round ; the water will quickly fly off in all 
directions, leaving the salad ready for dressing. When thus 
prepared, it should be mixed with some of the smaller cress 
and some spring or other onions (very little of either). It is 
then neatly piled in a bowl, the top of which is garnished 
with small salad, radishes, slices of beetroot, hard-boiled eggs 
(cut into neat shapes, slices or quarters). This, together with 
a cruet containing oil, vinegar, salt and pepper, or a bottle of 
salad dressing or mayonnaise, constitutes an English salad. 
If the salad be dressed in the bowl, the dressing should not 
be poured over it till the last moment of serving, otherwise 
its delicious crispness, so essential in greert salads, will be 
destroyed. 

328. English and Continental Differences.^-Com- 
paring an English with a Continental salad, it is noticeable that 
we make too much of a mixture by piling the salad bowl with 
mustard, cress, watercress, endives, celery, radishes, &c. So 
much so that the original flavour of the lettuce, which should 
predominate, is all but lost. This is more harmful when 
young, tender cabbage lettuces are used. These additions 
are admirable, provided sufficient care be taken to keep the 
flavour and taste predominant of the principal ingredient of 
the salad. Radishes, lettuces, celery, &c, are often used as 
simple salads, eaten with salt and without any other admixture. 
Cooked vegetables make delicious salads, whether dressed with 
oil and vinegar or with mayonnaise. Cauliflowers, celery, as- 
paragus, artichoke bottoms, potato, cucumber, French beans, 
peas, carrots, &c, can all be utilised, and are excellent with 
other dressing. Cardoons, when cooked and allowed to get 
cold, are delicious as a salad. There is a prejudice with 
many people against the use of oil. This is due to the bad 
quality of oil which is sometimes offered for sale ; if pure 
Provence or olive oil be used there is rarely arty objection to 
it. A dusting of black pepper, sugar, and salt, with a little 
wine or tarragon vinegar, should be added to olive oil for 
salad dressing. The use of Onion and garlic is strongly 
objected to by many ; some say that neither should be used 
for salads. There is no question as to the virtue of the flavour 
which can be introduced into a salad. The best way is, 
probably, to rub a cut onion or clove of garlic over the inside 

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Vegetarian Cookery 

of the salad bowl, or on to toasted bread or a lump of sugar, 
the latter being put in the salad. This will do away with any 
possible objection, for no one will be able to detect the 
especial flavour of either of these roots. The proportion of oil 
and vinegar needed for a plain salad dressing is three to one. 
Another point to be borne in mind when mixing oil and 
vinegar, &c, is to put the salt, pepper and sugar into a mixing 
bowl first, then the vinegar, and lastly the oil ; in this way the 
vinegar dissolves the salt and obviates any unpleasant gritti- 
ness such as is found in carelessly prepared salad. 

329. Salade k la Francaise. — The variety of salads in 
France is endless. Raw and cooked products, hot and cold, are 
often indifferently blended with one another, from the simple 
lettuce salad to the Supreme de legumes, which is an equivalent 
to Russian salad or a macedoine salad. Nothing can be nicer 
than the original Salade a la Francaise. Remove all the outer 
leaves of a good cos or three cabbage lettuces and cut off the 
stalks quite close ; dry them well after draining them in the 
salad basket and break them small (properly speaking, a knife 
should never touch lettuce). Now put a good dust of black 
pepper and salt and a pinch of sugar into a basin, and beat 
with it two tablespoonf uls of plain Orleans (wine) vinegar or 
tarragon vinegar, and four tablespoonf uls of good oil ; then 
lay in the lettuce, adding a very little finely-minced green 
spring onions, or chives, and some green tarragon and chervil, 
also chopped. Keep tossing it all together till the salad has 
taken up all the dressing and is equally saturated with it, then 
lift it out of the basin with the servers and place it in the 
salad bowl containing a piece of dry toast, previously rubbed 
with a clove of garlic, throwing away the liquid at the bottom 
of the basin, which will be found to be more than half water. 
This is termed Salade Romaine if cos lettuce be used, and 
Salade de laitue if cabbage lettuce be used. Endive, called 
chicoree, or escarole, is prepared precisely in the same way. 

330. Artichoke Salad.— 6 Jerusalem artichokes, 2 Spanish 
onions, cream salad dressing, chopped boiled beetroot, and 
pickled gherkins. Boil six Jerusalem artichokes and two 
onions in separate saucepans. When cold, cut all into neat 
slices, arrange alternately on a dish, pour some cream salad 
dressing over, scatter chopped beetroot and pickled jjherkin§ 
oyer all and serve. 

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Salads 

331. Asparagus Salad.— Asparagus, shallots, eggs, oil, 
vinegar, pepper and salt. Boil some asparagus in the usual 
way, cut off the green points and leave them to get cold. 
Add a little very finely chopped shallot, or rub the dish with 
it and pour the following dressing over the asparagus : Into 
the yolks of two eggs stir drop by drop six tablespoonfuls of 
oil, and one and a half of vinegar, add pepper and salt to taste. 
Garnish with hard-boiled eggs cut in rings. 

332. Aspic Jelly Mould with Russian Salad.— Aspic 
jelly, boiled vegetables, mayonnaise sauce, garnish. Fill a 
border mould with clear aspic jelly, decorating it with sliced 
radishes, fancy cut boiled carrots and green peas ; boil separ- 
ately various kinds of vegetables. When cold, mix them, stir 
mayonnaise sauce well with them, and fill the centre of the 
mould. Garnish outside the mould with shred lettuce and 
put a wreath of beetroot or cucumber slices round the edge 
of the flat dish. 

333. Beetroot and Onion Salad. — Boil a large Spanish 
onion, drain on a hair sieve, and leave it till cold ; then cut it 
into thin slices ; slice also a large cooked beetroot. Mix the 
onion and beetroot together, add a teaspoonful of finely- 
minced tarragon and parsley, pepper and salt to taste, two large 
tablespoonfuls of oil, and one tablespoonful of vinegar. Mix 
thoroughly and serve. 

334. Beetroot Salad. — Lettuce, onion, boiled beetroot, 
salad dressing. Make a good lettuce and onion salad, pound 
a large piece of beetroot to pulp and pass it through a hair 
sieve, add to each tablespoonful of this, two of thick cream or 
oil and one of vinegar, and a few drops both of chilli and 
tarragon vinegar, mix it with the salad and arrange on the top 
thin slices of beetroot and of hard-boiled eggs. 

335. Carrot Salad.— Cold cooked carrots, sugar, lemon, 
cayenne, salt, salad oil, lettuce salad, horseradish. Slice some 
carrots which have been cooked whole, spread them on a dish, 
sprinkle them with caster sugar, grated lemon rind and juice, 
cayenne and salt, and a little good salad oil. Put a nice lettuce 
salad in a bowl, and mix it well with any salad dressing pre- 
ferred. Lift the carrots carefully with a slice and arrange 
them on the top with scraped horseradish in tufts, and round 
thin slices of onion. 

336. Cauliflower Salad. — A boiled cauliflower, parsley, 

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Vegetarian Cookery 

shallots, tarragon, salad dressing, mayonnaise sauce, garnish. 
Cut off the green leaves, prepare and cook a nice fresh cauli* 
flower as previously directed, drain and leave till cold ; cut 
into neat pieces, leaving the flower in small branches. Make 
a good salad dressing, spread the pieces on a flat dish and pour 
the dressing over them. Season with very finely-chopped 
parsley, shallot, and tarragon. Arrange nicely, then pour 
over the whole some thick mayonnaise sauce. Garnish with 
tomato slices, cucumber and gherkins, and serve. 

337. Celery for the Table, To Dressy— Trim off the 
tops, the end of the root, the decayed and all discoloured 
parts, cut the white part of the root to a point, split each root 
in two or four pieces according to its size ; curl the tops of the 
stalks by drawing the point of a skewer through them to make 
them like a fringe, then lay them in very cold spring water till 
required. Send to table in a celery glass or dish half filled 
with cold water. 

338. Celery and Beetroot Salad.— Celery, beetroot, 
shallot, parsley, mayonnaise sauce. Take two good heads of 
celery, separate and wash the tender parts of the sticks and 
the root, let them soak in cold water, cut them into small 
pieces, and put into a salad bowl with some cold boiled beet* 
root cut in thin slices ; sprinkle with a very small quantity of 
finely-chopped shallot and parsley, pour some good mayonnaise 
sauce over and serve very cold ; the salad should be garnished 
with the pretty green tops of the inner leaves of the celery. 

339. Celery and Cucumber Salad.— This is one of the 
finest salads, though not much known. Wash some white 
celery according to the quantity required, cut it lengthways 
into fine strips or shreds, and thTow it into iced water for 
about half an hour. Peel a cucumber very thinly, and cut 
it similar to the celery. Drain the latter, and put it into 
a bowl with the cucumber. Season with salt and pepper, 
and mix it well with mayonnaise dressing. Heap it up in the 
bowl, wipe the sides of the bowl with a damp cloth. Surround 
the salad with a border of small red radishes, garnish with 
slices of hard-boiled egg, sprinkle over a little finely-chopped 
French gherkin and parsley, and serve. Ordinary salad 
dressing, oil, vinegar, or so-called vinaigrette sauce, will do 
as well if mayonnaise sauce is not handy or convenient 
to use. 

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Salads 

340. Cucumber Salad.— Cucumber, oil, vinegar, pepper, 
salt. Peel a perfectly fresh cucumber and slice as thin as 
paper, lay the slices on a flat dish, sprinkle them with fine salt, 
cover and let remain for ten minutes, then pour off all the 
liquid ; mix together one-third of oil, two-thirds of vinegar, 
season with pepper, salt, and sugar, stir up the slices well 
so that all are flavoured alike, and serve at once. If onions 
are added to the salad, slice them thinly and salt at the same 
time as the cucumber. Watercress should be added after 
the dressing is put to the cucumber. Cucumber, or cucumber 
and onion, salad is a favourite English salad. . 

341. German Salad. — Boil a white-heart cabbage till 
perfectly tender ; drain carefully, and put to press between 
two heavy dishes till quite cold, then slice and place in a 
salad bowl, with half a dozen large cold potatoes sliced, 
a sliced beetroot, a finely-chopped onion, a quartered sour 
orange, and half a dozen cold boiled eggs cut into quarters ; 
mix gently. Have ready half a pint of Tartar sauce, pour 
over the whole, season with pepper and salt, mix again, 
and serve. 

342. Gouffle's Salad.— A tablespoonful of English 
mustard, 2 tablespoonfuls of good vinegar, 8 tablespoonfuls 
of good salad oil, a full pinch of pepper, £ teaspoonful of 
Chopped chervil, celery, cucumber, radishes, artichoke 
bottoms. Rub the mustard smooth with the vinegar, add 
the oil and pepper, and mix all well together. Cut up one 
part of celery into little dice, and mix with three parts of 
peeled cucumber very finely sliced, and three parts of raw 
artichoke bottoms very finely sliced, sprinkle with salt and let 
stand for two hours, then add to it two parts of small pink 
radishes or pickled red cabbage ; drain the vegetables well, 
mix them thoroughly with the sauce, and put in a salad bowl. 

343. Lettuce Salad. — 2 French lettuces, salad herbs, 
salad oil, French wine or tarragon vinegar, pepper, salt, 
French mustard. Split two good cabbage lettuces down the 
stalk, divide the leaves into three or four pieces, rinse in cold 
water, shake well in a light wire basket or clean cloth. 
Place the lettuces in a salad bowl, season with pepper and 
salt, sprinkle over some coarsely chopped chives, tarragon, 
chervil, and parsley ; mix with two or three parts of salad oil 
to one part of French wine or tarragon vinegar. The dressing 

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Vegetarian Cookery 

should always be mixed in a, separate basin or in a large ladle ; 
a little French mustard may be mixed with it if preferred. 
The blending should be done with a wooden fork or spoon. 

344. Lettuce and Bean Salad.— 2 French lettuces, 
beetroot, chopped chervil, oil and chilli vinegar, cooked French 
beans, hard-boiled eggs, pepper and salt, a slice of toasted 
bread. Wash, drain, and tear into small pieces two French 
lettuces. Toast a slice of bread about one-third of an inch 
thick, dip it in salad oil, and put it in a salad bowl. Put 
alternate layers of lettuce and French beans on this toast. 
Garnish with cooked beetroot, hard-boiled eggs, and chopped 
chervil. Season with pepper, salt, oil and chilli vinegar just 
before it is required for table ; do not let it stand after the 
dressing is poured over it. 

345. Mixed Vegetable Salad. — An endive, a cooked beet- 
root, cold potatoes, raw celery, cucumber, tomatoes, plain 
salad dressing, hard-boiled eggs. Break a nice fresh endive 
into small pieces, slice a cooked beetroot, add cold potatoes, 
celery, cucumber, tomatoes ; arrange neatly, season with salt 
and pepper, dress with oil and French vinegar, and garnish 
with hard-boiled eggs. 

346. Concerning the Use of Peeled Onions.— That 
peeled onions may be used to absorb bad odours and infectious 
germs and thus purify the air is not generally known ; but on 
this account they are not only useful, but may become un- 
wholesome if left near the kitchen sink, meat, or any decayed 
vegetable refuse. An onion should never be used on the 
second day after it is cut; therefore, to save waste of this 
useful vegetable, when only a small quantity is required for a 
dish, choose a button onion and keep the larger sizes until 
more is needed. 

347. Onions in Salad. — To epicures no salad is complete 
without a soupcon of onion, though the onion itself need never 
be manifest. This is best given by rubbing the dry salad 
bowl with a freshly-cut onion before putting the prepared 
salad into it. A stronger flavour may be given by adding 
some onion- juice to the dressing. This is obtained by rubbing 
a freshly-cut onion against a grater, and letting the juice run 
off its edge into the dressing. In spring, the tiny, thread-like 
seedling-onions, sometimes sarcastically called "violets," may 
be finely minced and added to salad, and to those who 

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Salads 

appreciate the onion flavour they will give a splendid zest to 
it, as well as adding to its health-improving virtues. 

348. Salade k la Paysanne.— Slice some pickled red 
cabbage, cold potatoes, celery roots, etc., and season with 
pepper, salt, oil, and vinegar. 

349. Spanish Salad. — Cut four ripe tomatoes into thin 
slices, sprinkle them with pepper and salt, and place in a 
circle in a salad bowl. Add a teaspoonf ul of finely-minced 
shallot and a piece of chopped mango from a jar of chutney. 
Have ready a soup-plate full of cold (cooked) French beans, 
marrow-fat peas, and button mushrooms — these latter must 
previously have been fried in a little butter, drained, and 
allowed to get cold upon kitchen paper— dust with pepper 
and salt, and mix thoroughly. Have ready half a pint of good 
mayonnaise sauce, pour over the beans, etc., and stir again ; 
then use the mixture to fill the centre of the tomatoes. Pile 
up as high as possible/garnish with chopped white of egg, 
and serve. 

350. Tomato Salad. — 6 firm even-sized tomatoes, 2 
tablespoonfuls salad oil, 1 teaspoonful chopped chives or 
parsley, 1 tablespoonful vinegar, 1 teaspoonful mixed mustard 
or muslardyne, pepper and salt. Wipe the tomatoes, 
scald them in boiling water for one minute, drain on a cloth, 
-carefully remove the stems and skin, and let cool. Cut them 
into thin slices and place in a salad bowl. Now prepare the 
dressing. Put two saltspoonfuls of salt in a basin, together 
with one saltspoonful of pepper, the mixed mustard or mustar- 
dyne, pour in the vinegar and oil, and mix thoroughly with a 
wooden salad spoon. Just before serving the salad add the 
chopped chives or parsley to the dressing, and pour it over 
the tomatoes. 

351. Watercress Salad. — Cleanse the watercress, pick off 
the bunchy tops, and arrange them neatly in a glass dish ; 
place a saltcellar with saltspoon in the middle and serve thus 
for breakfast or tea. 



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MENU. 

Tapioca Cream Soup. 

Shepherd's Pie. 

Kedgeree. 

Green Corn Salad. 

Baked Batter Pudding. 

Fruit Salad. 

Tomato Toast 

Tapioca Cream Soup.— 4 oz. tapioca, 3 pts. milk, 2 oz. 
butter, 2 large onions, 1 gill cream, 6 cloves, pepper, salt, 
grated nutmeg or chopped parsley. Soak the tapioca in 
one pint of milk for two hours before cooking. Put the 
sliced onions, butter, pepper, and salt into a saucepan ; 
stir in the tapioca and milk, and cook for half an hour, 
stir occasionally to prevent burning ; press through a sieve, 
add the cream, reheat, and add a little nutmeg or parsley 
before serving. 

Shepherd's Pie. — 2\ lb. potatoes, t lb. boiled haricot 
beans, onions, carrots, pepper, salt, 2 oz. butter, 1 egg, £ oz. 
flour. Peel all the potatoes, cut half of them in pieces about 
half an inch thick, boil the remainder for about twenty 
minutes in enough water to cover them, and a seasoning of 
salt and pepper. Chop the carrots and onions finely, put 
them into a quart pie-dish in layers with the haricot beans. 
Heat half the butter in a small saucepan, add the flour, and 
stir together till brown ; avoid burning, strain some of the 
water from the potatoes to this, and make a nice sauce ; 
season liberally with pepper and salt, and pour over the con- 
tents of the dish. Mash or pass the nicely boiled mealy 
potatoes through a wire sieve, add the remainder of the 

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Menu 

butter and beaten legg to it, and with the mixture form a 
crust for the pie, smoothing it nicely over with a knife, and 
score the top with a f ork ; then bake the pie for half an hour* 
If preferred, the prepared potato may be mixed with half its 
weight in 'flour, and the dough may then be rolled out like 
pastry. 

Kedgeree.— £ lb. rice (cooked), 2 hard-boiled eggs, 1 tea- 
spoonful chopped parsley, i teaspoonf ul chopped thyme and 
marjoram (mixed), 2 tomatoes, pepper and salt, garnish. 
Having chopped the whites of the eggs, put them in a 
saucepan with the strained rice, the tomatoes (skinned and 
sliced), the herbs, butter, pepper, and salt ; make all very hot, 
then pile on a flat dish, place a wire sieve over and press the 
yolks of eggs through on the top of the mixture. Garnish 
with slices of lemon and sprigs of parsley* Serve hot. 

Green Corn Salad. — £ tin green corn, 2 small lettuces, 
i bunch watercress, small slices beetroot (cooked), 2 hard- 
boiled eggs, fresh cream or salad dressing. Wash the lettuces 
and watercress, put them in a clean cloth, fasten the corners 
of it together, and swing it round until all water is expressed 
from the salad, after which cut them in pieces and place in a 
salad bowl. Turn half the tin of green corn into the salad 
and mix all together. Use the hard-boiled eggs, cut in dice> 
and the thinly-sliced beetroot as garnish, and par excellence 
serve with fresh cream, or with salad dressing. 

Baked Batter Pudding. — 4 tablespoonfuls flour, 2 eggs, 
i pt. milk, 2 oz. butter, pinch of salt. Mix the flour, salt, 
whisked eggs, and milk into a smooth batter, let it stand for 
an hour or so, then put the butter into a baking-tin, melt it in 
the oven, see that every part of the tin is well greased ; beat 
up, pour in the batter, and bake from twenty to thirty 
minutes. Serve hot. 

Fruit Salad. — 1 small tin pineapple (cut in cubes), 2 
oranges (peeled and quartered), any other fruit that is con- 
venient (cut in small pieces), a few glace cherries and 
blanched almonds, caster sugar, cream. Place the fruit, 
cut in convenient pieces, in a salad bowl, mix the juice and 
syrup with sufficient sugar to taste, adding, if liked, a small 
quantity of wine or liqueur, garnish with the cut cherries and 
almonds ; cover and let stand in a cool place till required. A 
jug of thick cream may be handed with this salad. 

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Menu 

Tomato Toast.-— 3 tomatoes, 1 oz. butter, 1 egg, ± o«. 
grated cheese, 1 tablespoonful breadcrumbs, salt, pepper, 
6 small rounds of buttered toast. Dip the tomatoes in boiling 
water, remove the skin, chop them, heat the butter in an 
omelet pan, put in the tomatoes, add pepper and salt, and fry 
about five minutes ; beat up the egg, add it, stir well, add the 
.breadcrumbs, and cook two minutes, take it off the fire, add 
the grated cheese ; have ready the toast, spread the mixture 
on the rounds, and serve at once very hot. The mixture should 
be cooked again after the raw cheese is added. 



Note. — The above menu, together with the recipes for the 
various courses, is given merely as a specimen. Other menus 
are given on pag$ 24, but the housewife will find very little 
difficulty in making up her^dwrf from the many recipes given 
in this volume. \ r * 



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Index 



Appetising cookery, 21 

Apple rings, 7 

Apples, dried, 7 

Apricot omelet, 255 

Apricots, stewed, 7 

Artichaut vert, beurre fondu, 122 

Artichoke bottoms, 123 

„ puree, 25 
salad, 330 
Artichokes, Jerusalem, boiled, 58 

•1 1. mashed, 59 

Asparagus dainties, 124 

„ sandwiches, 125 
salad, 331 

„ sauce, 291 

„ (sauce poivrade), 60 

„ to boil, 61 

„ to steam, 62 
Aspic Jelly mould with Russian salad, 332 
Aurore sauce, 292 

Baked cheese crumpets, 190 

„ savoury rice, 191; 
Barley and pea soup, 26 
Basil, when to gather, 8 
Bechamel sauce, 293 
Beetroot and onion salad, 333 

„ salad, 334 
Beetroots a la creme, 63 

boiled, 64 
Beignets, 3 
Beurre noir, 294 
Blonde noux, 16 

Boiled rice and tomato sauce, 192 
Braised onions, 126 
Bread and cheese fritters, 193 

„ sauce, 295 
Breakfast eggs, 235 

„ muffins, 194 
Breton sauce, 296 
Broad beans a la mattre d'hotel, 65 

„ boiled, 66 
Broccoli and cauliflower, boiled, 67 
Brown roux, 17 

„ sauces, 287 
Brussels sprouts, boiled, 68 

„ tops, a la Francaise, 127 
Burnet, when to gather, 8 
Butter and cream liaison, 284 
Buttered eggs, 236 

„ „ German fashion, 237 



Cabbage soup, 27 
„ to boil, 69 

„ mould, 70 

„ savoury, 128 
Canned tomatoes iFor pies, 4 
Caper or gherkin sauce, 297 
Carrot salad, 335 

„ soup, 28 

„ tartlets, 129 
Carrots, mashed, 71 

„ to boil, 72 
Cauliflower, 73 

„ with black butter, 74 

„ au gratin, 130 

„ aux tomates, 131 

„ salad, 336 

„ soup, 29 

Celery a l'ltalienne, 132 

„ and beetroot salad, 338 

„ and cucumber salad, 339 

„ boiled, 75 

„ roots in cream sauce, 76 

„ souffles, 77 

„ soup, 30 

„ to dress, 337 
Cheese a la Pimpernell, 195 

„ biscuits, 196 

„ cream, 199 

„ cream fritters, 197 

„ custard, 198 

„ eclairs, 199 

„ eggs en caisses, 200 

„ gaTettes, 201 

„ omelet, 202 

„ pudding, 203 

„ sandwiches, 204, 205 

„ souffle, 206 

„ straws, 208 

„ toasts, 209 
Chervil, when to gather, 8 
Chestnut soup (brown), 31 
„ „ (white), 3a 

„ sauce, 298 1 
Chipped potatoes or artichokes, 78 
Choufleur polonaise, 133 
Clermont soup, 36 
Common thyme, when to gather, 8 
Cream sauce, 299 
Croutons of cheese, 209 
Cucumber salad, 340 
„ sauce, 300 



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Index 



Cucumbers a la crime, 79 

„ a la poulette, 134 
Curried macaroni, 281 
Curries: 

Hints, 261 

Spices and flavours, 262 

Frying of vegetables, 263 

Dry vegetable, 264, 265, 266 

Broad beans, 267 

Haricots and eggs, 268 

Haricot bean, 269 

Lentil, 270 

Mushrooms, 271 

Rice, 272 
Curry sauce, 301 

Dried apples, 7 

„ fruit, 6 

„ julienne, 6 

„ mushrooms, 6 

„ vegetables, 6 
Dry frying, iq , 
„ vegetable curry, 264 

Eggs : 

Breakfast, 235 

Buttered, 236 

„ German fashion, 237 

Darioles, princess style, 238 

Pie, 239 

Salad, 240 

and asparagus, 241 

in cases, 242 

on toast, 243 

Poached, with spinach, 244 

Poach, to, 245 

Savoury, 246 

„ cream on toast, 247 

Scrambled, 248 

„ and tomatoes, 249 

„ with asparagus, 250 

Egg liaison, 283 
Eggs and salads, 5 
Egg sauce, 302 

English and Continental salads, 328 
Entries, 3 
Entrees and savouries t 

Artichaut vert beurre fondu, 122 

Artichoke bottoms, 123 

Asparagus dainties, 124 
„ sandwiches, 125 

Braised onions, 126 

Brussels tops a la Francaise, 127 

Cabbage, savoury, 128 

Carrot tartlets, 129 

Cauliflower au gratm, 130 
„ aux tomates, 13; 

Celery a l'ltalienne, 132 

Choufleur polonaise. 133 

Cucumbers a la poulette ; 134 

Haricot mould or souffle, 135 

Haricots, Parisian, 136 

„ verts a la maitre d'hotel 137 

„ „ aux fines herbs, 138 

Jerusalem artichokes with cheese, 139 

Lentil rissoles, 141 
Lettuce with plasmon, 142 



Entrees and savouries (cont.) t 
Mushrooms, 143 

„ cream, 144 
„ pie, 145 
„ pudding, 146 
„ toast 147 
„ a la Creole, 148 
,, devilled, 149 
„ in cases, 150 
„ with cream, 151 
Potato balls, Parmesan, 152 
„ „ sautes, 153 
„ cassolettes with eggs, 154 
„ chowder, 155 
„ croquettes, 156, 157 
„ flakes, 158 
„ fritters, 159 
„ scones, 160 
„ souffle^ 161 
„ a la creme, 162 
„ „ maitre d'hotel, 163 
„ lyonnaise, 164 
„ savoury with cheese, 165 
„ scalloped, 166 
Sausages maigres, 167 
Saute potatoes, 168 
Savoury vegetables, 169 
Seakale, Florentine style, 170 
Spinach croutes, 171 
Stewed mushrooms, 172 
„ red cabbage, 172 
Stuffed tomatoes, 174 
Tinned mushrooms, 175 
Tomatoes a l'Americaine, 176 
, t in batter, 177 
„ scalloped, 178 
„ fritters, 179 
„ souffles, 180 
„ toast, 181 
Turnips au gratin, 183 
Vegetable marrow rings, 184 

„ „ savoury, 185 

Vegetable pie, 186 

„ sandwiches, 187 
Vegetables, rechauffes of, 188 
Walnuts and celery with mayonnaise, 
189 

Farinaceous and cheese « 
Baked cheese crumpets, 190 

„ savoury rice, 191 
Boiled rice and tomato sauce, 192 
Bread and cheese fritters, 193 
Breakfast muffins, 194 
Cheese a la Pimpernell, 193 

biscuits, 196 

cream fritters, 197 

croutons, 209 

custard, 198 

eclairs. 199 

eggs en caisses, 200 

galettes, 201 

omelet 202 

pudding, 203 

sandwiches, 204, 205 

souffle, 206 

straws, 208 

toasts, 208 



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Index 



Farinaceous and cheese (cont.) : 
Fondu souffles, 2x0 
Gherkin toasts, 211 
Griddle cakes, 212 
Hominy cutlets, 21$ 
Hot cheese, 214 
Macaroni a l'ltalienne, 2x5 
„ au gratin, 2x6 
,, balls, 217 
Milk roU pie, 218 
Nouilles au gratin, 219 
Oatmeal cakes, 220 
„ porridge, 221 
„ pudding, 222 
Plasmon rice cutlets, 223 
Potato cakes, 224 

„ fritters, 225 
Rice, Turkish fashion, 226 
„ curried, 227 
„ fritters, 228 
Savoury biscuits, 229 
„ crusts, 230 
„ porridge, 231 
Toasted cheese, 232 
Tomato rice, 233 

„ with cheese sauce, 234 
Figs, stewed, 7 
Fondu souffles, 210 
Foreign methods, variety of, 22 
French beans and scarlet runners, to boil 

80 
French dressing, simple, 29* 
Fritters, 3 
Fruit, dried, 6 
Frying, 10 

„ batter, 81, 82 

„ of vegetables for, curries, 263 

German salad, 341 
Gherkin toasts, 211 
Gouffle's salad, 342 
Green bean soup, 33 

„ corn fritters, 83 

„ pea soup, 34 

„ peas, dried, 6 
Greens and sprouts, to boil, 84 
Griddle cakes, 212 

Haricot bean curry, 269 
„ „ omelet, 252 

„ beans, 36 
" „ to boil, 86 

„ mould or soufflg, ¥35 
„ soup, 35 

„ (French), 37 

Haricots, Parisian, 136^ 

„ verts a la maitre d'hotel, 137 
„ „ aux fines herbes, 138 

„ and eggs, curried, 268 
„ to prepare, 6 

Herbs, how to prepare, 20 
„ when to cut and how to dry, 8 

Hollandaise sauce, 303 

Hominy cutlets, 213 

Horseradish sauce, 304. 3<>5 

Hot cheese, 2x4 

Jerusalem artichoke purge, 1 



Jerusalem artichoke with -cheese, 139 
. .• * eggs,i40 

Julienne, dried, 6 
„ soup, 38 

Kneaded butter liaison, 285 
Knotted marjoram, when to gather, 8 

Lamb mint, when to gather, 8 

Leek omelet, 253 

Leeks, to boU, 87 

Lemon thyme, when to gather, 8 

Lentil curry, 270 

„ rissoles, 141 

„ soup, 39 
Lentils, puree of, 50, 51 
Lettuce and bean salad, 344 

„ salad, 343 

„ salads on, 327 

„ with plasmon, 142 
Lettuces, stewed, 88 

„ „ and green peas, 89 

Liaisons : 

Egg, 283 

Butter and cream, 284 

Kneaded butter, 285 

Macaroni : 
To cook, 273 
a la Bretonne, 274 
a la creme, 275 
a la Florentine, 276 
a l'ltalienne, 277 
a la Provencale, 278 
au gratin, 279 
and onions, boiled, 280 
curried, 281 
a l'ltalienne, 215 
balls, 217 
au gratm, 216 
for entrees, 3 
soup, 40 
Maitre d'hotel butter, 306 
Mayonnaise aspic cream, 308 
Menus, 23, 118 
Milk roll pie, 218 

„ soup, 41 
Mint sauce. 309 
Mixed herbs, 8 

„ vegetable salad, 345 
Mulligatawny soup (quickly made), 42 
Mushrooms, 143 

„ cream, 144 
„ pie, 145 „ 

„ pudding, 146 

„ toast, 147 
„ a la Creole, 148 

„ devilled, 149 

„ in cases, 150 
„ with cream, 151 

„ curried, 27X 

„ dried, 6 

„ omelet, 254 

„ sauce, 310 
Mustard sauce, 3x1 

Naples soup, 43 
Neapolitan soup, 44 



12$ 



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Index 



Koollle paste, 3 
NoulUes au gratyn, 219 
Nuts, 9 

OATM ial cakes, 320 
„ porridge, 221 
„ pudding, 222 
Odours, to avoid vegetable, 24 
Oil, boiling in, ii ° 
„ frying in, ii 

Omelette soufflee a la Plombiere, 256 
Omelets: 

Vegetable, 251 

Haricot bean, 252 

Leek, 253 

Mushroom, 254 

Auz abricots, 255 

SoufSee a la Plombiere, 256 

Rice, 257 

Savoury, 258 

„ French style, 259 

Sweet, 260 
Onion sauce, 312 

„ soup, 45, 46 

Onions fried, 90 

m stewed, 91 

„ in salad, 347 
Orange thyme, when to gather, 8 

Palestine soup, 25 
Parsley sauce, 313 

» when to gather, 8 
Parsnip soup, 48 
Parsnips, to boil, 92 

„ with cream, 93 
Pea flour, 6 

- soup, 49 
Peas, green, to boil, 94 

„ „ with butter, 95 

„ tinned or bottled, 96 
Pears, stewed, 7 
Peeled onions, concerning, 346 
Pies, 4 
Plain Bechamel sauce, 314 

„ melted butter, 315 

„ sauces, 288 
Plasmon mashed potatoes, 97 

„ rice cutlets, 223 
Plums, stewed, 7 
Poach eggs, to, 245 
Poached eggs with spinach, 244 
Potato andmushroom pie, 4 

„ „ tomato pie, A, 4 

„ balls, Parmesan, 152 

„ „ sautes, 153 

„ cassolettes with eggs, 154 

„ chowder, 155 

„ croquettes, 156, 157 

„ flakes, 158 

„ fritters, 159 

„ scones, 100 

„ souffle^ 161 

„ a la creme, 162 

„ „ maitre d'hotel, 163 

„ lyonnaise, 164 

„ savoury, with cheese, 165 

M scalloped, 160 



Potatoes, baked, 08 

„ boiled, 99 

„ breadcrumbed, 100 

„ duchess, 101 

„ slices andribboos, fried, 102 

„ mashed, 103 

„ mould, 104 

„ new, boiled, 105 

„ rolls, 106 

„ new, saute, 107, 108 

„ stewed, 109 

„ puff, no 

„ puree of, 52 
Puff potatoes, no 
Purees, x 

Raisins, stewed, 7 
Ravigote or green butter, 316 
Rice, curried, 272 

„ omelet, 257 

„ Turkish fashion, 226 

„ curried, 227 

„ fritters, 228 

„ soup, 53 
Roux liaison, 18 

M to make, 14 

Salads, 5 

„ sauces, 289 
Salads: 

Remarks on, 326 

Lettuce, 327 

English and Continental, 328 

a la Francaise, 329 

Artichoke, 330 

Asparagus, 331 

Aspic jelly mould with Russian, 332 

Beetroot and onion, 333 

Beetroot, 334 

Carrot, 335 

Cauliflower, 336 

Celery, to dress, 337 
„ and beetroot, 338 
„ and cucumber, 339 

Cucumber, 340 

German, 341 

Gouffle's, 342 

Lettuce, 343 

„ and bean, 344 

Mixed vegetables, 345 

Peeled onions, concerning, 346 

Onions in, 347 

a la Paysanne, 348 

Spanish, 349 

Tomato, 350 

Watercress, 351 
Sage and onion stuffing, 317 

„ when to gather, 8 
Salsify, boiled, in 

„ fried, 112 

„ scalloped, 113 
Sauces: 

White, 286 

Brown, 287 

Plain, 288 

Salad, 289 

Simple French, 290 



124 



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Index 



Sauces {cont.) : . i 

Asparagus, 291 
Aurore, 292 
Bechamel, 293 
Beurre noir, 294 
Bread, 295 
Breton, 296 
Caper or gherkin, 297 
Chestnut, 298 
Cream, 299 

Cucumber, 300 ■ 

Curry, 301 
Egg, 302 
Houandaise, 303 
Horseradish, 304, 305 
Maitre d'hotel, 306, 307 
Mayonnaise aspic cream, 308 
Mint, 309 
Mushroom, 310 
Mustard, 311 
Onion, 312 
Parsley, 313 
Plain Bechamel, 314 

„ melted butter, 315 
Ravigote or green butter, 316 
Sage and onion stuffing, 317 
Sauce a la Russe, 318 
„ supreme, 319 
„ verte, 320 
„ vinaigrette, 321 
Soubise, 322 

Tarragon, chervil or fennel, 323 
Tartare, 324 
White chaudfroid, 325 
Sausages maigres, 167 
Saute potatoes, 168 
Sauteemg, xo 
Savoury biscuits, 229 
„ crusts, 230 
„ eggs, 246 
„ omelet, 258 
„ „ French style, 259 

. „ porridge, 231 
„ summer, when to gather, 8 
„ vegetables, 169 
„ winter, when to gather, 8 
Savoury egg cream on toast, 247 
Scrambledeggs, 248 

„ „ and tomatoes, 249 

„ „ with asparagus, 250 

Seakale, boiled, 114 

„ Florentine style, 170 
Sieve, the, in making purees, 2 
Soubise sauce, 322 
Soups : 
Artichoke puree, 25 
Barley and pea, 26 
Cabbage, 27 
Carrot, 28 
Cauliflower, 29 
Celery, 30 

Chestnut (brown), 31 
„ (white), 32 
Green bean, 33 
„ pea, 34 
Haricot, 35 

„ beans (Clermont), 36 
„ „ (French), 37 



Soups (cont) : 
-Julienne, 38 
Lentil, 3? 
Macaroni, 40 
Milk, 41 

Mulligatawny (quickly made), 42 
Naples, 43 
Neapolitan, 44 
Onion, 45, 46 

„ maigre, 47 
Parsnip, 48 
Pea,49 
Puree of lentils, 50, 51 

„ „ potatoes, 52 

Rice, 53 
Tomato, 54 
Vegetable, 55, 56 
Vermicelli, 57 
Souffles, 3 
Soups, 1 

„ thick, 2 
Spanish salad, 349 
Spinach, boiled, 115 
„ croutes, 171 
Spices and flavours for .curries, 262 
Stewed mushrooms, 172 
„ red cabbage, 173 
Stock, to make, 13 
„ for sauces, 1 
„ roux, 14 
Stuffed tomatoes, 174 
Supreme, sauce, 319 
Sweet omelet, 260 

Tarragon, chervil, or fennel sauce, 323 

„ when to gather, 8 
Tartare sauce, 324 
Thick soups, 2 
Thickening, 18 
Tinned mushrooms, 175 
Toasted cheese, 232 
Tomato rice, 233 

„ „ with cheese sauce, 234 

„ salad, 350 

„ soup, I 

„ soup, 54 . , ^ 
Tomatoes a 1'Amencaine, 176 

„ baked, 116 

M in batter, 177 

„ fried, 117 

„ fritters, 179 

„ scalloped. 178 

„ souffles, 180 

„ toast, 181 
Turnips au gratin, 183 

„ boiled, 118 

„ tops, H9 

Vkgetablk consomml, 1 
„ curry, 265, 260 
„ marrow, boiled, 120 
„ „ fried, 121 

„ „ rings, 184 

„ » savoury, 185 

„ omelets, 251 

pie, 186 
„ sandwiches, 187 



1 



125 



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Index 



Vegetable soup, 55, 56 
Vegetables : 
Artichokes, Jerusalem, boiled, «8 

„ „ mashed, 59 

Asparagus (sauce poivrade), 60 
„ to boil, 61 
„ to steam, 62 
Beetroots a la creme, 63 

,. boiled, 64 
Broad beans a la maitre d'hotel, 65 

„ boiled, 66 
Broccoli and cauliflower, boiled, 67 
Brussels sprouts, boiled, 68 
Cabbage, to boil, 69 
„ mould, 70 
Carrots, mashed, 71 
„ to boil, 73 
Cauliflower, 73 

„ with black butter, 74 
Celery, boiled, 75 

„ roots in cream sauce, 76 
„ souffles, 77 
Chipped potatoes or artichokes, 78 
Cucumbers a la creme, 79 
French beans and scarlet runners, to 

boil, 80 
Frying-batter, quickly-prepared, 81 

Green corn fritters, 83 
Greens and sprouts, to boil, 84 
Haricot beans, 85, 86 
Leeks, to boil, 87 
Lettuces, stewed, 88 

„ „ and green peas, 89 

Onions, fried, 90 

„ stewed, 91 
Parsnips, to boil, 92 

„ with cream, 93 



Vegetables (cont)t 
Peas, green, to boil, 94 
„ „ with butter, 95 
„ „ tinned or bottled, 96 
Plasmon mashed potatoes, 97 
Potatoes, baked, 98 

,, boiled, 99 j 

„ breadcrumbed, zoo 
„ duchess, 101 
„ slices and ribbons, fried, 10; 
„ mashed, 103 
„ mould, 104 
„ new, boiled, 105 
„ rolls, 106 
„ new, saute*, 107, 108 
„ stewed, 109 
„ puff, no 
Salsify, boiled, in 
„ fried, 112 
„ scalloped, 113 
Seakale, boiled, 114 
Spinach „ 115 
Tomatoes, baked, 116 
fried, 1*7 
Turnips, boiled, 118 

„ tops, 119 
Vegetable marrow, boiled, 120 
„ „ fried, 121 

Vegetables, rechauffes of, 188 
Verte, sauce, 320 
Vinaigrette, sauce, 321 

Walnuts as a substitute for almonds, 9 

Watercress salad, 331 

Wet-frying, 10 

White chaijdf roid sauce, 325 

White roux, 15 

WAltegs»iK^s,^96 



CEKT^ftU HE«ER 




Vr 



UNW1N BROTHERS, LIMITED, THE GRESHAM PRESS, WOKING AND LONDON. 






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